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Chapter 7: Motivation through Equity, Expectancy & Goal Setting

Adams Equity Theory Organizational Justice Expectancy Theory Motivation through Goal Setting Application of theories

Adams Equity Theory of Motivation

Negative and positive inequity Equity sensitivity Reducing inequity Organizational Justice

Distributive Procedural Interactional

Findings and applications

Negative and Positive Inequity


Figure 7-1

A. An Equitable Situation
Self Other

$2

= $2 per hour 1 hour

$4

= $2 per hour 2 hours

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2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Negative and Positive Inequity (Cont.)


B. Negative Inequity
Self
Figure 7-1

Other

$2

= $2 per hour 1 hour


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$3 1 hour

= $3 per hour

2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Negative and Positive Inequity (Cont.)


Figure 7-1

C. Positive Inequity
Self Other

$3

= $3 per hour 1 hour


McGraw-Hill/Irwin McGraw-Hill

$2 1 hour

= $1 per hour

2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Expectancy Theory of Motivation


Vrooms

Model

Expectancy Instrumentality

Valence

Organizational Implications of Expectancy Theory

Reward people for desired performance and be transparent. Design challenging jobs. Tie some rewards to team work. Reward managers for creating and maintaining expectancies (self-efficacy), instrumentalities, and outcomes

Organizational Implications of Expectancy Theory

Monitor employee motivation through interviews or anonymous questionnaires Accommodate individual differences by building flexibility into the motivation program

Motivation through Goal Setting

Goals How does goal setting work?


Attention Effort Persistence Difficulty Specificity Participative Commitment

Factors:

Guidelines for Writing SMART Goals


Table 7-2

Specific Measurable Attainable Results oriented Time bound


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Motivation through Goal Setting

Process

Step 1: Set goals Step 2: Goal commitment Step 3: Support and feedback

Theory applications

Skills & Best Practices: Managerial Actions for Enhancing Goal Commitment
1.

2.

Provide valued outcomes for goal accomplishment. Raise employees self-efficacy about meeting goals by:
1.

2.
3.

Training Role modeling desired behaviors and actions Persuasively communicating confidence in the employee

3. 4.

Make goals public Communicate an inspiring vision and explain how individual goals relate to the vision.
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McGraw-Hill

Skills & Best Practices: Managerial Actions for Enhancing Goal Commitment (Cont.)
5. 6. 7. 8.

Participative goal setting Be supportive rather than punitive. Incremental goals Ensure that employees have necessary resources to accomplish goals

McGraw-Hill/Irwin McGraw-Hill

2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.