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Done By : Chan Jia Wei Steve Koh Chin Yein Yee

Our senses detect stimuli and we respond. Humans have 5 senses: touch, taste, smell, sight, Human have receptors or sense organs such as: and hearing. The senses are based on receptor cells The skin responds to touch , pressure, pain, or groups of receptor cells called sense organs. heat and cold. Receptors respond to stimuli and send nerve The tongue responds to chemical in our impulses along sensory neurons. The brain food and drink. It gives us our sense of interprets the nerve impulse and, thus, we perceive taste . the impulse as one of our senses. The nose responds to chemical in the air. It gives us our sense of smell. The ears respond to sound vibrations and movements. They give us our sense of hearing and our balance. The eyes respond to light rays. They give us our sense of sight. Nervous pathway from stimulus to response: Stimulus Sensory organs Sensory nerves Brain Response Motor nerves

The skin is made up of three layers- theepidermis, the derm is and the fatty layer. There are many different types of sensors in the skin. The number of sensors varies in different parts of our body. The sensitivity of the skin depends on two factors: The thickness of the epidermis The number of receptors - Pain receptors are at the skin surface. They are branched and respond to intense stimuli. -Some touch receptors are attached to the base of our hair. So you can feel it they are being pulled. -Pressure receptors are in the fatty layer. It is used to detect pressure exerted on the skin. -Heat receptors are located below the epidermis. It detects heat or any rise of temperature. -Cold receptors are also located below the epidermis. It detects a cold substances or any fall in temperature

Your senses of taste and smell are closely linked. They are both chemical senses. What things can you taste? -You can only taste sweet, sour, bitter, and salty things. People think that they can taste other things but they are actually using their sense of smell. The sensors that give you your sense of taste are found in little grooves on your tongue. They are call taste buds. Each taste bud can only taste one taste. The different types of taste buds are found in particular areas on the tongue. The taste buds send nervous impulses along the nerves to the brain for its interpretation. When food is placed in the mouth, the saliva dissolves the food and the chemicals stimulate the taste buds. Nervous pathway for detecting taste: Food(stimuli) Saliva dissolves food Chemical in food stimulate taste buds Taste buds send impulses to brain . The brain interprets the impulses
Different areas of the tongue are especially sensitive to different taste

Our nose also senses chemical but it is A person having a cold cannot thousands of time more smell well. This is because the sensitive than your sensory cells are covered sense with a lot mucus and not much of taste. chemicals can reach and stimulate Smells are chemical in the sensory cells. the air. The nervous pathway can be The chemical dissolve in summarized as follows: the moist lining of your Chemical enter the nose nose. Chemical dissolves in mucus They stimulate sensors Chemical stimulate the in your nose to send sensory cells The sensory cells impulses to the brain. produce nervous impulses The brain interprets Nervous impulses are these impulses as sent along the nerves to the brain different smells. The brain interprets the impulses The nasal cavities have as a certain smell glands which produce a sticky fluid called mucus.

The air around us is full of sound waves. You ears work by converting these sound waves into nerve impulses. This I show it happens:

The outer part of your ear funnels the sound waves into the ear canal The sound waves travel along the ear canal to the eardrum. The ear drum starts to vibrate when sound waves hit it The vibrations are passed on to 3 little bones called the ossicles The ossicles pass the vibrations on to the inner eardrum or oval window When oval window vibrates it causes fluid in the cochlea to move Inside the cochlea are lots of tiny, sensory hairs. Movement of the fluid sets these hairs vibrating. They send off nerve impulses to the brain The brain interprets these impulses as sounds

Ear Structur

The nervous pathway is as follow: Cornea aqueous humour pupil eye lens vitreous humour retina brain optic nerve Light travels in a straight line. Light can travel through vacuum Light can be reflected and absorbed A periscope and a kaleidoscope uses the reflection of light Light can be refracted. Light is refracted when light travels from a medium to another medium.

Defects of Vision Long-sightedness Short-sightedness Astigmatism Colour blindness Optical illusion Blind spot
There are two kinds of vision: Stereoscopic vision Monocular vision