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DYEING: A process of coloring fibers, yarns, or fabrics with either natural or synthetic dyes. Some of the major dyeing processes are described below
Preparatory process to Dyeing
Scouring- to remove natural impurities like fats, oils, waxes by treating in 2% NAOH at high temperature. Grey souring- the alkali present in the yarn is removed by treating with mineral acid like Hcl or H2SO4. Desizing – here the strach applied before weaving is removed by using chemical treatment.
.Bleaching Natural colouring matters are converted to colourless leuco compounds by nascent hydrogen or oxidised in to soluble colourless compound.
This is also called dope dyeing . staple. the colors are fast to most destructive agents. Usually.Mass colored or dope dyeing Mass-Colored: A term to describe a manufactured fiber (yarn. or tow) that has been colored by the introduction of pigments or insoluble dyes into the polymer melt or spinning solution prior to extrusion.
Yarn dyeing Yarn Dyeing: The dyeing of yarn before the fabric is woven or knit. . packages. cakes. cheeses. and beams. Yarn can be dyed in the form of skeins. muff. chain-wraps.
They are incorporated into the fiber by chemical reaction. their affinity for different fibers. absorption. alkalies .Dyes DYES: Substances that add color to textiles. washing. and their solubility and method of application . and other agents. Dyes differ in their resistance to sunlight. their reaction to cleaning agents and methods. or dispersion. gas. perspiration.
other animal fibers. Acid dyes are widely used on nylon when high wash fastness is required. and some manufactured fibers.Acid dyes Acid Dyes: A class of dyes used on wool. In some cases. Acid dyes are seldom used on cotton or linen since this process requires a mordant. even higher Wash fastness can be obtained by after treatment with fixatives .
modacrylics. The fastness of basic dyes on these fibers is very poor. and polyesters. Basic dyes are also used on basic-dyeable acrylics. nylons. water-soluble salts that have a direct affinity for wool and silk and can be applied to cotton with a mordant. on which they exhibit reasonably good fastness . Basic dyes are composed of largemolecule.Basic dyes Basic Dyes: A class of positive-ioncarrying dyes known for their brilliant hues.
and such dyes are referred to as “after treated direct colors. They produce full shades on cotton and linen .Direct dyes Direct Dyes: A class of dyestuffs that are applied directly to the substrate in a neutral or alkaline bath. Various after treatments are used to improve the wash fastness of direct dyes.” . Direct dyes give bright shades but exhibit poor wash fastness.
Disperse dyes are widely used for dyeing most of the manufactured /synthetic fibers.Disperse dyes Disperse Dyes: A class of slightly water-soluble dyes originally introduced for dyeing acetate and usually applied from fine aqueous suspensions. .
. Sulfur Dyes: A class of water-insoluble dyes that are applied in a soluble. Umbrella cotton cloth is dyed by this. reduced form from a sodium sulfide solution and are then reoxidized to the insoluble form on the fiber. They are applied from an acid bath. They generally give very poor fastness to chlorine.Metal & Sulfur dyes Metallized Dyes: A class of dyes that have metals in their molecular structure. Earlier this is used for dyeing drill fabrics. Sulfur dyes are mainly used on cotton for economical dark shades of moderate to good fastness to washing andlight.
linen . Vat dyes are among the most resistant dyes to both washing and sunlight.Vat dyes Vat Dyes: A class of water-insoluble dyes which are applied to the fiber in a reduced. and other cellulosic fibers. They are widely used on cotton. .rayon. soluble form (leuco compound) and then re-oxidized to the original insoluble form.
. Fiber-reactive dyes are relatively new dyes and are used extensively on cellulosics when bright shades are desired. These are used for dyeing curtain cloth.Reactive dyes Fiber-Reactive Dyes: A type of watersoluble anionic dye having affinity for cellulose fibers. In the presence of alkali. they react with hydroxyl groups in the cellulose and thus are liked with the fiber.
or by passing it between squeeze rollers.Methods of dyeing PADDING: The application of a liquor or paste to textiles either by passing the material through a bath and subsequently through squeeze rollers. the bottom one of which carries the liquor or paste .
thus imparting a driving force to move the fabric.Contd… JET DYEING MACHINE: A hightemperature piece dyeing machine that circulates the dye liquor through a Venturi jet. The fabric. is sewn together to form a loop . in rope form.
heat. or carpet by any of a largenumber of printing methods. or chemicals for fixation.PRINTING PRINTING: A process for producing a pattern on yarns. usually in the form of a paste. Printing is called localised dyeing .is deposited onto the fabric which is then usually treated with steam. warp. fabric. The color or other treating material.
Contd… Block Printing: The printing of fabric by hand. using carved wooden or linoleum blocks. as distinguished from printing by screens or roller Blotch Printing: A process wherein the background color of a design is printed rather than dyed. .
Contd… Direct Printing: A process wherein the colors for the desired designs are applied directly to the white or dyed cloth. Examples are screen printing and roller printing .
Eg: stencil printing . the fabric is piece dyed. a color is added to the discharge paste in order to replace the discharged color with another shade. then printed with a paste containing a chemical that reduces the dye and hence removes the color where the white designs are desired.Contd… Discharge Printing: In “white” discharge printing. In “colored” discharge printing.
then dyeing the fabric. tie and dye . the design remains white although the rest of the fabric is dyed. in which case. the color of the design is not affected by subsequent dyeing of the fabric background. Eg.Contd… Resist Printing: A printing method in which the design can be produced: 1) by applying a resist agent in the desired design. in which case. or (2) by including a resist agent and a dye in the paste which is applied for the design. Batik.
and as the fabric passes between the roller and the padded cylinder. Each roller supplies one color to the finished design. although some have sixteen rollers. using a machine containing a series of engraved metal rollers positioned around a large padded cylinder.Contd… Roller Printing: The application of designs to fabric. Print paste is fed to the rollers and a doctor blade scrapes the paste from the unengraved portion of the roller. Most machines are equipped with eight rollers. . each color in the design is applied.
The areas of the screen through which the coloring matter is not to pass are filled with a waterproof material.Contd… Screen Printing: A method of printing similar to using a stencil. . The printing paste which contains the dye is then forced through the untreated portions of the screen onto the fabric below.
5-dihydroxyethylenurea (DMDHEU) ammonium salts or complex compounds .Finishing Crease resistant finish A certain crease resistance can be obtained by adding to fibres complex inorganic compounds of boron. . as well as zinc and barium silicate.Nl. today the only products applied aresynthetic thermosetting resins eg:N.are used as catalysts.3dimethylol-4. However.
and thiourea. melamine. guanidine. phosphates. . such as chloride. applied in concentrations ranging from 10-20%. A good and wash-resistant effect is obtained. bromide and phosphate.THPC-tetrakis hydroxymethylol phosphoriumChloride. melamineformaldehyde (the latter also increase the solidity to washing of the product) One process that has a particularly important application is the Proban process. dicyandiamide or guanidine). This process exploits the copolymerisation of THPC and methylolmelamine to form a highly flame-repellent resin that contains phosphorous and nitrogen THPC-urea process (or process with melamine.dicyandiamide. dicyandiamide. The fabric is impregnated with THPC and one of the above-mentioned nitrogenous substances. urea. are very widely used.Flame-retardant Treatments ammonium salts. ammonium sulphamate. and nitrogenous resins such as ureaformaldehyde.
Water repellent finish Evoral G20 Water proof finish Dipsanil-V Waxol-P .
. as well as on additional ethylene oxide compounds.SOIL RELEASE treatment These products are emulsions.or on the relative salts. and fluoride compounds. based on polymers or copolymers of acrylic or metacrylic acids.
Anti-static Treatments .
4-hydrophenyl trichloro (II) ether) .4.Anti Bacterial Finish Triclosan (2.
nylon Delustering agent used in the spinning solution of manmade fiber.Rayon First synthetic fiber. .titanium dioxide.Extra points Elastic is used in Lycra yarn Increasing the bulkiness of synthetic yarn is called texturising Wool protien is called Keratin Silk protien is called fibroin First regenerated fiber.
Kevlar comes under Aramid fibers Standard atmospheric conditionsRH-65+-2% Temp-27+-2oc .
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