The antinutritional factors may be defined as those substances generated in natural feed stuffs by the normal metabolism of species and by different mechanisms(e.g inactivation of some nutrients ,diminution of digestive process or metabolic utilisation of feed)which effects contrary to optimum nutrition.

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Lectins are proteins with a characteristic affinity for certain sugar molecules or majority are glycoproteins present in the membranes of different animal cells, including those of the intestinal mucosa. Source: plants (legumes such as peanut, Black beans, soybeans, lima beans,peas, lentils,kidney bean..etc) including fungus and lichens Mechanism: Effects on Cell Membrane known for their ability to agglutinate (clump) erythrocytes in vitro. There are over 400,000 estimated binding sites for kidney bean agglutinin on the surface of each erythrocytes.

    Effect on the Gastrointestinal Tract Disrupt small intestinal metabolism and damage small intestinal villi via the ability of lectins to bind with brush border surfaces in the distal part of small intestine. Less toxic lectins can be fatal if ingested in high amounts. . Reduced growth. and interference with nutrient absorption are caused by this class of toxicants. diarrhea.

• • • • Autoclaving is proved very helpful in destruction of toxic hemagglutinins and other growth inhibiting factors. preliminary soaking prior to autoclaving is required Formaldehyde has been recognized to reduce the agglutinating activity of bean lectin. . Dry heating has been found to be less effective. For complete elimination of the toxicity of kidney bean and field bean.

is found to completely block human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vitro infection of lymphoid cells. . This activity of the jacalin is attributed to its ability to specifically induce the proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes in human. One of the major interest in this class of glycoproteins is the therapeutic use against HIV-1. Jacalin. a plant lectin.

  Highly toxic because of the presence of ricin.which inactivates ribosomes . lethal oral dose of ricin is 0. a watersoluble glycoprotein most poisonous of the natural occurring compounds.1 g/kg body weight for horses. Ricin acts by translocating to the cytosol the enzymatically active toxin-A chain. but 5.5 g/kg body weight for goats. 1-2 g/kg for most other livestock. .

when the beans is about 10% of their diet. profuse diarrhoea. including vomiting.• • • • Gastrointestinal signs predominate. rabbits. it can be inactivated by autoclaving. .atlast convulsions. and rats. collapse and die within 36 hours of consumption Steam heating significantly reduces the toxicity of pomace to become harmless for sheep. colic and abdominal pain. calcium hydroxide may aid in achieving complete destruction of the ricin and the allergen. Although the castor bean allergen is more resistance to boiling than ricin. When used before heating castor bean.

rosary pea or jequirity pea. By attaching to a carbohydrate chain on the cell surface. .   seeds of a plant called lucky bean. Abrin works by penetrating the cells of the body and inhibiting cell protein synthesis.

nephritis. 2003). Severe gastroenteritis. Calves -0.25 or 1g/kg feed died within 19 hours of consumption Whilst goats given a similar daily dose were either killed or died within 7-21 days. and subepicardial and subendocardial haemorrhages as well as renal sub-cortical and subpleural bleeding. haemagglutination. myocardial degeneration..• • • • Seeds contain curcin. . a toxic glycoprotein with a 54% homology with the ricin A chain and with a similar mode of action (Lin et al.

Phorbal 12. Croton oil is produced in limited commercial amounts in India and Europe . crotin.• • • The major toxic agent. is a collective name for a group seed glycoproteins each with varying toxicity but with a similar mode of action to that of ricin(Sperti et al.. 1976).13 diesters are also present and probably account in part for the irritant and purgative action of the ingested seeds.

. Canavalia spp. 1989). Feed intake and body weight were reduced by the diet containing 10% raw. C.• • • • C. were found to have high hemagglutination activity against cattle and human erythrocytes. ensiformis seeds indicating broiler chicks can tolerate daily intake of 100 mg Con A over 6 weeks without affecting growth. ensiformis seeds are the natural source of Con A (Merck.

. ensiformis has a wide range of applications(e.blood group substances and glycoprotein hormones) Con A is a potential molecule to be considered for tumor therapy by immunomodulation . antiviral. mitogenecity.g.  Con A from C. isolation of immunoglobulins.

Characteristic neurologic signs are similar to those of perennial ryegrass staggers . hemorrhage of the brain and lungs. However. The lesions include congestion. edema. or up to 1 wk after onset of signs. and degeneration of the liver and kidneys. .• • • • • The corynetoxins are highly toxic glycolipids that inhibit specific glycosylation enzymes and therefore deplete or reduce activity of essential glycoproteins. mortality from annual ryegrass toxicity is commonly 40-50%. occasionally greater. Annual ryegrass ( Lolium rigidum ) Outbreaks occur 2-6 days after animals graze a pasture that contains annual ryegrass infected at a toxic level. Deaths occur within hours.

. These bacteria-infected galls are present in infected annual ryegrass pastures from early spring onward.• • In Australia. the responsible corynetoxins (members of the tunicaminyluracil group) are produced in seedhead galls induced by the nematode Anguina funesta and colonized by Rathayibacter toxicus . but they are most toxic when the plants senesce.

Burning annual ryegrass pastures in the fall destroys most of the galls colonized by bacteria and minimizes the risk of toxicity in the following season.• • • Spread of bacteria-infested nematodes to adjacent healthy annual ryegrass pastures is slow. Grazing of hay aftermath from toxic pastures should be avoided. .

. Form unabsorbable complexes with them. Can decompose vitamins.      A substance that prevents a vitamin from exerting its typical biological effects. Most antivitamin's have chemical structures similar to vitamins Function as competitive antagonists. Interfere with their digestive or metabolic utilization.

    The antivitamin factor. . phytic acid. also will profoundly and quantitatively influence the antirachitic action of the vitamin in one direction or the other. The acid-base balance. Large excess of fat may act against the vitamin by precipitating calcium salts. Lactose may act with it.

a vitamin analogue precipitating vitamin B1. and in certain species of crab. Mechanism: interact with vitamin B1 (thiamine). and catechols. the synthetic antivitamin. • The interaction with vitamin B1 can lead to serious neurotoxic effects as a result of vitamin B1 deficiency • Source: Thiaminases are found in many fish species.• • Antithiamine factors can be distinguished as thiaminases. tannins. freshwater. pyrithiamin. antithiamine factors are enzymes that split thiamine at the methylene linkage • . saltwater species.

 Reduction: cooking destroys thiaminases in fish and other sources. Antithiamine factors can also be of plant origin. occurring in a variety of plants.  . including tea  inhibition of growth in animals and for inhibition of digestive enzymes. Tannins.

The enzyme is active between pH 4. and other oxidation products • Source: fruits and vegetables such as cucumbers. oxalic acid. lettuce. carrots.• copper-containing enzyme that mediates : 1. about 38°C. • • . Being an enzyme. bananas. tomatoes. oxidation of free ascorbic acid  dehydroascorbic acid 2. and green beans. ascorbic acid oxidase can be inhibited effectively by blanching of fruits and vegetables. pumpkins. dehydroascorbic acid  diketogulonic acid. potatoes.

• • • • • A variety of plants and mushrooms contain pyridoxine (a form of vitamin B6) antagonists The antipyridoxine factors have been identified as hydrazine derivatives Source: mushroom Reduction: Immediate blanching after cleaning and cutting can reduce the substance Mechanism: condensation of the hydrazines with the carbonyl compounds pyridoxal and pyridoxal phosphate — the active form of the vitamin — resulting in the formation of inactive hydrazones .

antipantothenic acid Having related chemical Structure and act by blocking. .  Synthetic product Regarded as structural analogue of both vitamin E and vitamin Pantoyltaurine   Synthetic product.

In the prevention and treatment of postoperative thrombosis.    . To increase the blood-clotting time.   Naturally occurring antivitamin K Present in decaying or spoiled sweet clover Cause of a spontaneous. endemic haemorrhagic disease of cattle Competitive or blocking action.

Synthetic product.    3-Acetylpydine (antinicotinamide). Sulphapyridine (antinicotinamide). said to block nicotinamide by preventing formation of coenzyme systems both in nutrition of micro-organisms and in blacktongue of dogs. belonging to the sulphonamide class of drugs. precipitating nicotinamide deficiency in mice . Synthetic product.

to which It is structurally closely related. May owe its toxic action to its interference with the metabolism of the nutrient. inositol.the y-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane. .  Gammexane .

or other related substances containing the sulphonamide group.  Sulphanilamide. classical example of an antivitamin folic acid Sulphanilamide itself. inhibited the growth of certain pathogenic micro-organisms by competing with an essential nutrient(p-aminobenzoic acid) needed by the micro-organism. .

excess fat and other factors Vitamin D Vitamin E Tocopherol . copper Phytic acid .Vitamin Having related chemical structure and acting by blocking Pyrithiamin Oxidative enzyme or other destructive agent Heated fats Raw fish (enzyme) Exercising some other type of interference with action Vitamin A Vitamin B1 Vitamin C Glucoascorbic acid Ascorbic acid oxidase. calcium : phosphorous ratio.

) Riboflavin Isoriboflavin Cystine y-Hexachlorocyclohexane (Gammexane) Methylfolic acid and others Choline Inositol Folic acid .p-Aminobenzoic acid Sulphanilamide Vitamin K Pantothenic acid nicotinamide Dicoumarol Pantoyltaurine Sulphapyridine 3-Acetylpyridine Desoxypyridoxin Pyridoxin (Vitamin B.

accidents. surgery. Drugs are serious stress producers in the body In addition. are all depleted and/or unassimilable as a result of stresses on the body . exposure to extreme's of heat or cold grief all produce great stress . The B vitamins and vitamin C.    All kinds of stresses are vitamin antagonists. overly exhausting work or exercise. as well as proteins and minerals.

Itinterferes with blood-clotting and lessens the ability of cells to absorb glucose for heat and energy. . High losses of vitamin C and the B vitamins plus the minerals calcium and potassium.   Aspirin interferes with digestive processes and can result in stomach bleeding.

The antibiotic streptomycin is a folic acid antagonist . the antibiotic penicillin is also an antivitamin of vitamin B6.  Besides being a vitamin K antagonist.

including herbal types. . Even so-called "natural" diuretics. other vitamins. for all diuretics result in great losses of B vitamins. are harmful. and the minerals potassium and magnesium. vitamin C.

It absorbs vitamin A and carotene. . are vitamin antagonists. including the herbal types. vitamin E and vitamin K).   All laxatives. as well as the other fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin D. Mineral oil is perhaps the most devastating laxative.

    Foods not grown organically are "fed" (via their soil) synthetic chemical fertilizers which contain excessive nitrogen. They also prevent formation of this vitamin in our body from its precursor. . butNitrates and nitrites are formed. carotene. nitrates and nitrites systematically and subtly reduce the vitamin A stored in the liver. This excessive nitrogen increases the crop yield. and these pollutants are potent antivitamins.

as is vitamin E. ozone. lead.  Antivitamins found in polluted air. especially city air. sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Vitamin A and vitamin C are both depleted when the body is exposed to air containing these pollutants.  . hydrocarbons. are carbon monoxide.

Nutritional and antinutritional significance of four unconventional legumes of the genus Canavalia – A comparative study K. Seena . Sridhar *. S.R.

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