A Role is a place one occupies in a social system defined by the functions one performs in response to the expectations of the ‘significant’ members of a social system and one’s own expectations from position or office.

Office/Position Role
Is based on power relations Is based on mutuality Has related privileges Usually hierarchical Created by others Has related obligations Is non-hierarchical Is created by others & role occupant Is part of the dynamics Is descriptive

Part of the Structure Is evaluative

Organisation as a Structure of Offices/Positions

Organisation A C E F G H

Organisation B D I

Organisation as a System of Roles



Roles as Integrating Point of Organisations and Individuals
Organisation Structure Goals Role Individual Personality Needs

Role as Region of Ind.- Org. Interaction




Role Systems

Role Space
System of various roles that each individual performs  A person performs roles that are centered around the self  At varying distances from self  These various relationships define Role Space  Role Space, then, is a dynamic interrelationship between the self and the various roles an individual occupies and also among these roles

Role Set

The individual’s role in the organization is defined by the expectations of other significant roles and those of the individual himself or herself The role set is a pattern of interrelationship between a particular role and the other roles in the system

Role Efficacy

 

Performance depends on potential effectiveness as a person, technical competence, managerial experience etc. as well as the role that the person performs in the organization is designed. Integration of the two Effectiveness of a role occupant in an org., therefore, depends on the individual’s own potential effectiveness, the potential effectiveness of the role, and the org. climate. Role efficacy is the potential role effectiveness

Role Making

Self – role integration person’s use of
his/her special strengths in role

Proactivity ability to take initiative


opportunities to try new and unconventional ways of solving problems


if avoid problems or shift to others role efficacy low. Tendency to confront problems

Role Centering

Centrality Influence

if feels role he/she occupies is central to org. efficacy high the more influence a person is able to exercise in a role, the higher the role efficacy.

Personal Growth

Role Linking
  

Inter-role linkage Helping relationships Superordination linkage with systems,

groups, and entities beyond org.. Feels does as a part of role is likely to be of value to a larger group, efficacy likely to be higher

Increasing Role Efficacy
Self-role Integration
 

Work with subordinates to redesign their roles so that their strengths can be utilized. Recommend moving a ‘misfit’ to a job that can use his or her assets .


  

Minimize supervision of subordinates , and encourage them to ask for your help when they need it. Reward initiative in subordinates. Listen to subordinates, respect their views, and use these wherever possible. Arrange for subordinates to visit other organizations.


Encourage your subordinates to come up with ideas to solve problems.

 

Create a climate that encourages people to generate ideas without fear of being criticized. Appreciate and use new ideas given by subordinates. Encourage and reward suggestions to solve problems

 

 

   

Take subordinates into confidence while confronting a problem. Support the action taken by a subordinate if it is within the rules and procedures. Appoint a task group for a problematic decision. Use a subordinate’s failure as a useful experience-help him or her to learn from it. Encourage subordinates to bring problems forward. Anticipate problems together. Encourage subordinates to solve problems themselves and hen report to you. Follow the ‘buck stops here’ dictum.

Communicate the importance of roles (their critical contributions) to their incumbents. Communicate the importance of the roles as perceived by others. Give enough freedom to each subordinate to set his or her own objectives and decide on ways of achieving them. Give increasingly difficult and challenging responsibilities.

 

    

Delegate authority. Give relevant details of decisions made. Send good ideas from subordinates to higher management. Give feedback to subordinates on their suggestions. Be willing to accept mistakes.

 

Appreciate your subordinates’ work. Do not snub employees for their shortcomings, instead cooperate with them to overcome these. Delegate increasingly difficult and challenging tasks to them.

Inter-role Linkage
Encourage subordinates to seek and render cooperation from and to other departments. Encourage employees to solve problems by working with their peer (and not refer the problems to you unless they need your intervention).

   

Encourage subordinates to respond to requests from other departments. Encourage them to seek help from peers in other departments. Seek the help of your subordinates in areas where they can contribute. Encourage your subordinates to come to you for help and respond to them positively.

Help subordinates to understand and appreciate the contributions of their role to the society. Help subordinates link (and see the linkage of) the objectives of their roles to organizational objectives. Encourage them to include in their roles whatever may be useful to a larger section of people. Encourage teamwork. Remain accessible to subordinates.

 


Where Managers Work

A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.

Management Functions
Planning Organizing

Management Functions
Controlling Leading

Management Functions (cont’d) Planning
A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.

Management Functions (cont’d) Organizing
Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.

Management Functions (cont’d) Leading
A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.

Management Functions (cont’d) Controlling
Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.

Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles

Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)

Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)