Unit 13 Stress

Book Code – MB 0038
Smita Choudhary Faculty OB & HR

Stress Management

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Stress Management

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Contents
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Introduction Types of stress Potential sources of stress Consequences of stress Managing stress A suggested framework for stress management Crisis management

Stress Management

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Introduction     Stress is defined as a physical. it will cause mental and physical imbalance in the person. But it should not be greater than an individual’s capacity to handle stress. Stress Management 4 . In such a case. Stress should work as a productive power and not as a restriction which can cause physical and mental imbalance. mental or emotional response to events which cause mental or physical tension. Stress is a part of every one’s life.

Learning Objectives After this unit. you will be able to understand  Types of stress  Managing stress  Crisis management Stress Management 5 .

 Symptoms of physical stress are  ◦ Headaches ◦ Tension in the neck.Types of Stress Stress can be 1) Physical  This happens when the body suffers due to stressful situation. forehead and shoulder muscles  Long periods of stress can lead to ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Digestive problems Ulcers Insomnia (lack of sleep) Fatigue (tiredness ) High blood pressure Nervousness Heart problems Stress Management 6 .

failure. Stress Management 7 . illness or failure.  Depression is the response to upsetting events like death of a loved one.  Symptoms of emotional stress are ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  Anxiety Anger Depression Frustration Over reaction to problems Memory loss Lack of concentration Anxiety is response to loss.  Anger is response to frustration or social stress.2) Emotional  These happens when stress affects the mind. or fear of the unknown.

 Symptoms of psychological stress are ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Social isolation Phobias Compulsive behavior Eating disorders Night terrors Stress Management 8 .3) Psychological  Stress for a long period of time may cause psychological problems in some individuals.

This beneficial part of stress is defined by Selye (1974) as Eustress (EU means good). like. enjoyment. death of an individual. Stress is classified into two types: ◦ Positive stress (Eustress) ◦ Negative stress (Distress)     A low level of stress can be handled by the body with the help of use of resources and it includes positive emotions. Excessive stress for long period of time may first cause an unpleasant feeling and then it may cause physical damage. excitement. satisfaction. etc. This bad part of stress is defined by Selye as distress (dys means bad). Stress Management 9 . fatigue and in extreme cases.

enjoyment. •Negative stress (Distress).•Positive stress (Eustress) -Moderate and manageable levels of stress for a reasonable period of time can be handled by the body through mobilization of resources and is accompanied by positive emotions. excitement and so on. even death of an individual. such as.an overload of stress resulting from a situation of either over arousal or under arousal for long periods of time causes the following: first an unpleasant feeling. followed by physical damage. satisfaction. Stress Management 10 . fatigue and in extreme cases.

A Model of Stress Stress Management 11 .

 Political uncertainties may also cause stress.  Changes in the business cycle cause economic uncertainties. Stress Management 12 .  Technological uncertainty may also cause stress because an employee’s skills and experience may become outdated due to new innovations.Potential Sources of Stress 1) Environmental Factors  The uncertainty in environment affects stress level of employees in an organization.

2) Organizational factors  Pressure to avoid errors or complete tasks within a fixed time. i.e. Stress Management 13 .   The pressure created by other employees leads to stress. a demanding boss may cause stress. ◦ Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood. working more than permitted time. Organizational structure is also a cause of stress.  Pressure on an individual due to his role in the organization is also a cause of stress..  Job related factors like job design. ◦ Role overload. Excessive rules and lack of participation in decisions are sources of stress. ◦ Role conflict create expectations that may not be satisfied. working conditions and physical work layout may be causes of stress. work overload.

These include family issues. mistrust increases a person’s stress and risk for heart diseases. personal economic problems.  Economic problems faced by individuals also leads to stress.3) Individual Factors These are factors in employee’s personal life.  Stress Management 14 . and an individual’s personality.  A person’s basic nature also affects stress. Over suspicious.  Broken families and marriages and other family issues may cause stress at the workplace. anger. enmity.

4) Individual Differences Perceptual variations of how reality will affect the individual’s future Greater job experience moderates stress effects Social support buffers job stress Internal locus of control lowers perceived job stress Strong feelings of self-efficacy reduce reactions to job stress Stress Management 15 .

Consequences of Stress Stress shows itself in three ways:  Physiological symptoms  Psychological symptoms  Behavioral symptoms Stress Management 16 .

But the physiological symptoms of stress have very little importance to students of Organizational Behavior. Stress Management 17 .Physiological Symptoms   Earlier stress was mainly considered as physiological symptom because specialists in the health and medical sciences did research on the topic.

High demands and lack of clarity about employee’s duties. The less control people have on their speed of work.Psychological Symptoms     Job related stress can cause job related dissatisfaction. Job dissatisfaction is the “simplest and most obvious psychological effect” of stress (Robbins. the more the stress and dissatisfaction. authority and responsibilities increase stress and dissatisfaction. Stress Management 18 . 2003).

Behavioral Symptoms Stress symptoms related to behavior are:  Changes in productivity  Absence  Turnover  Changes in eating habits  Increased smoking or use of alcohol  Sleep disorders  Restlessness Stress Management 19 .

Preventive Stress management Stress Management 20 .

family or work colleagues also help to manage stress. 1) Individual Approaches  Effective individual strategies include implementing time management techniques. increased physical exercise. can lead to reduced employee performance and hence requires action by the management.  Stress Management 21 . relaxation training.  Talking to friends.  Effective time management also helps in managing stress.Managing Stress Continue stress for long period of time.

2. It is done with the help of corporate wellness programmes. Stress Management 22 . This reduces chances of nonperformance and stress. Employee involvement should be increased. morale and commitment and reduces stress. This leads to increased productivity and reduced stress. Goals should be realistic. Members of organization should be refreshed from time to time. It improves motivation. Training in stress management techniques can be helpful. Redesigning the jobs can help to match individuals with their job and reduce stress. and hence reduces stress at work. Organizational approaches        Management may want to consider the following strategies: There can be an improvement in selecting people and they should be placed in the right job. Communication in organization should be improved because it helps in creating transparency and reduces confusion.

Personal stress requirements and the amount of stress that we can handle before surrendering changes with age. The person who likes stable conditions would feel stressed in a job where duties change frequently. Many illnesses are related to continuous stress. would feel stressed in a stable and routine job. Stress Management 23 .How can one find out what is optimal stress for an individual?    The person who likes disputes and likes to change jobs frequently.

How Can One Manage Stress Better? 1) Become aware of the stressors and the emotional and physical reactions:  Find out what is causing distress.  Find how the body responds to the stress 2) Recognize what can be changed:  Is it possible to change the stressors?  Can their intensity be reduced?  Can the individual’s exposure to stress be reduced? Stress Management 24 .

 Individuals should learn to control these reactions on their own.  Are we trying to please everyone?  Are we overreacting to situations?  We should try to see stress as something that we can handle rather than something that rules us.  Medication also helps to regulate the physical reactions. This reduces stress internally. deep breathing helps to bring heart rate to normal. Stress Management 25 . 4) Learning to moderate our physical reactions to stress:  Slow.3) Reduce the intensity of the emotional reactions to stress:  Stress is caused by our perception of danger: physical danger or emotional danger.  Relaxation techniques reduce muscle tension.

This helps us to mentally prepare ourselves in handling stress.  Try to achieve realistic goals and not goals set by others for you.  Avoid nicotine.  Diet should be well-balanced and nutritious. Stress Management 26 .  Expect for some frustrations.5) Build our physical reserves  To remain physically fit. This helps in reducing stress. an individual must do exercises for fitness of the heart like walking.  Sleep should be proper.  Weight should be maintained. caffeine and other stimulants to reduce stress. swimming. 6) Maintaining our emotional reserves  Develop friendships and share your emotions.  Do some leisure activity and take breaks from routine work to reduces stress. sorrows and failures in life. cycling or jogging.

Crisis Management    1. Organizational crises are of four types: Sudden crises: fire. 4. unpredictable event that harms an organization and its stakeholders. which people say were symbols of devilworship and hence people rejected P&G products. workplace violence. explosion. Stress Management 27 . Perceptual crises: The crises Problem Procter & Gamble used to have with their previous corporate logo consisting of half moon and stars. 2. 1998). Bizarre: A very unusual or strange crises like finger in the Wendy’s Restaurant Chilli. 3. It is the systematic attempt to avoid organizational crises or to manage those crises events that do occur (Pearson & Clair. etc. Smoldering crises: Problems or issues that were small in the beginning and could have been fixed if someone was paying attention. natural disasters. A crisis is a major.

It helps to analyze the situation from inside and outside the organization as stakeholders might perceive it. 5. 3. It provides better organizational toughness for all stakeholders. Helps in better management of serious incidents or any incident that could become serious. Techniques to prevent the possible spread of damage are developed. It helps organizations to follow regulatory and ethical requirements.Benefits of Crisis Management management are The main benefits of crisis 1. 4. corporate social responsibility. 2. Stress Management 28 . like.

Stress Management 29 . Increases ability. confidence and morale within the organization. It helps in better and improved risk management so that risks are identified and reduced. 9. It helps to protect and improve the reputation of the organization and reduces the risk of post event legal actions. 8. 7.6. It improves awareness of the staff about their roles and expectations within the organization.

Stress Management 30 .

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