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Copy of the original phone of Graham Bell at the Muse des Arts et Mtiers in Paris

1896 Telephone (Sweden)

The process of conveying information from one place to another

Source of information Transmitter Receiver Destination Transmission medium

A long distance communications tele Greek word for distant or afar

One of the most remarkable devices ever invented

Originally developed for conveying human speech information (voice)

Now extensively used to transport data using data modems

Public telephone network Global communications network

Rapid Development of Telephone System

1876 - Alexander Graham Bell & Thomas A Watson invented the telephone

1877 there are only 6 telephones in the world

1881 3,000 telephones 1883 133,000 (in US)

Telecommunication Giant Evolution

AT&T American Telephone & Telegraph Company
Referred to as the Bell Telephone System In 1982 - $155 billion assets, 1M employees, 100,000 vehicles

Comparison with Microsoft assets in 1988

$10 billion

1.5 billion telephone sets are operating in the world today

The Subscriber Loop

POTS Plain Old Telephone Service
Simplest and most straightforward form of telephone service Involves subscribers accessing the PTN through a pair of wires called the local subscriber loop (or simply local loop)

The Subscriber Loop

Local Loop
Most fundamental component of a telephone circuit Unshielded twisted pair(UTP) transmission line Cable pair 2 insulated conductors twisted together

The Subscriber Loop

Comprised of several lengths of copper wire interconnected at the junction & cross connect boxes located in manholes.

Provides the means to connect telephone set of the subscribers location to the closest telephone office
A telephone office end office/local exchange/central office

Connected to an electronic switching system (ESS)

Enables the subscriber to access the PTN (will be discussed later)

Standard Telephone Set

Telephone tele from afar, phone sound/ voice
An apparatus for reproducing sound, especially that of the human voice (speech) at a great distance by means of electricity; consisting of transmitting & receiving instruments connected by a line or wire which conveys the electric current

Standard Telephone Set

Basic telephone set
Simple analog transceiver designed for converting speech of acoustical signals to electrical signals Added features: multiple line selection, hold, caller ID

Standard Telephone Set

Butterstamp telephone(1878)
First telephone set that combined a transmitter and receiver into single handheld unit

Rotary Dial Telephone

Introduced by western electric company also called the bell system

Touch-Tone Telephone /wiki/Telephone

Quality of Transmission
Depends on
the received volume Frequency response of the telephone circuit Degree of the interference

Functions of the Telephone Sets

Notify the subscriber when there is an incoming call with an audible signal bell or visible signal flashing light

Provide a signal to a telephone network verifying when the incoming call has been acknowledged & answered
Receiver is lifted off hook

Convert speech energy to electrical energy (Tx) and vice versa (Rx)
Microphone, Speaker

Functions of the Telephone Sets

Incorporate some method of inputting and sending destination telephone numbers
From tel. Sets to central office pulses rotary dialer frequency tones touch tone

Regulate the amplitude of the speech signal

To avoid crosstalk

Notify the tel. Office when a subscriber wishes to place an outgoing call (handset lifted off hook)
Dial tone

Functions of the Telephone Sets

Ensure that a small amount of the transmit signal is fed back to the speaker
Feedback signal- sidetone/talkback

Provide an open circuit (idle condition) to the local loop when the telephone is not in use (on hook)
Closed ckt busy (off hook)

Provide a means of transmitting & receiving call progress signals between the central office switch & the subscriber
On & off hook signal, busy, ringing, dial tone

Components of a Telephone Sets

Transmitter Receiver Electrical network for equalization Associated circuitry
to control sidetone level to regulate signal power

Signaling circuitry

Essential Components
Ringer Circuit
Electronic oscilllator To alert the destination party of the incoming calls

On/Off Hook Circuit

Simple single throw-double-pole STDP switch Placed across the tip and ring On hook (idle, open switch), off-hook (in use, closed switch)

Essential Components
Equalizer circuit
Combination of passive components (resistors & capacitors) To regulate the amplitude & frequency response of the voice signals

Converts electrical signals received from the local loop to acoustical signals (sound waves) Enclosed in the handset of the telephone along with a microphone

Essential Components
Transmitter Converts acoustical signals in the form of sound pressure waves from the caller to electrical signals

Hybrid network
Hybrid coil/duplex coil Special balanced transformer used to convert 2-wire (local loop) circuit into 4-wire (telephone set) circuit Outgoing signal 1 to 2V, incoming half of outgoing signal

Essential Components
Dialing circuit
Enables the subscriber to output signals representing digits Rotary dialer/Electronic dial pulsing circuit/touch tone keypad

Basic telephone call procedures

Step 1: Calling station goes off hook Step 2: Switching machine returns an audible dial tone to the calling station Step 3: Caller dials the destination # Step 4: Switching machine removes the dial tone from the loop Step 5: Switch interprets the # and locates the local loop for the destination #

Basic telephone call procedures

Step 6: Switch check the destination for the DC current
If off hook, busy signal sends to the calling station If on hook, ringing signal and ring back signal will be sent

Step 7: When destination answers the call, it completes the loop causing DC current to flow.

Basic telephone call procedures

Step 8: Removes the ringing and ring back signal Step 9: When either end goes on hook
The switch machine detects an open circuit, then drops the connection through the switch

Call Progress Tones & Signals

Acknowledgement & status signals that ensure the processes necessary to set-up and terminate a telephone call are completed in an orderly & timely manner Signaling
Station signaling exchange of signaling message over local loops between stations & tel. company switching machines Intraoffice signaling exchange of signaling message bet. switching machines

Categories of Signaling
Alerting signals
Indicate request for service Ex. Going off hook, ringing the destination

Supervising signals
Provide call status information Ex. Busy, ring back signal

Controlling signals
Provide information in the form of announcement Ex. Change of number, number no longer in service

Addressing signals
Provide routing information (calling & called numbers)

Essential Call Progress Signals

Dial tone Dual tone multifrequency tones Multifrequency tones Dial pulses Station busy slow busy Equipment busy fast busy
Congestion tone

Ringing Ring back Receiver on hook Receiver off hook

Essential Call Progress Signals

Dial tone
2 frequencies 350 & 440Hz

Dual tone multifrequency tones (touch tones)

Introduced in 1963 with 10 buttons Each digit is represented by the linear addition of two frequencies Used to transfer digits & control signals between telephone sets & local switching machines

DTMF Keypad Frequencies

1209 Hz 697 Hz 770 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz 1633 Hz

852 Hz
941 Hz


2 ABC 5 JKL 8 TUV 0

3 DEF 6 MNO 9 WXY #


Essential Call Progress Signals

Multifrequency tones
Combination of two frequencies that fall within the same speech BW so that they can be propagated over the same circuits as voice (in-band signaling) Used to transfer digits and control signals between switching machines Transmit the calling & called numbers from originating tel. office to the dest. tel. office

Multifrequency Codes
Frequencies (Hz) 700 + 900 700 + 1100 Digit or Command 1 2

700 + 1300
700 + 1500 900 + 1100 900 + 1300

4 5 6

900 + 1500
1100 + 1300 1100 + 1500 1100 + 1700 1300 + 1500 1500 + 1700 2600

8 9 Key pulse (KP) 0 Start (ST) IDLE

Rate of transmission 7 digits per second KP - Used to indicate the beginning of a sequence of MF digits ST used to indicate the end sequence of dialed digits
Indicates the beginning of the processing of the signal (telephone circuit perspective)

Dial Pulses
Rotary dial pulsing The process begins when the telephone set is lifted off hook When a digit is dialed
The loop circuit alternately opens (breaks) & closes (makes) a prescribe number of times Rate 10 make/break cycle per second
100 ms per pulse cycle Break time 61 ms, make time 39 ms Interdigit time 300 ms

Min. digit duration Min interdigit duration Max interdigit duration 50 ms 45 ms 3s

Essential Call Progress Signals

Station busy
Sent from the switching machine back to the calling station whenever the called tel # is off hook 2 tone signal, 480 Hz and 620 Hz, 0.5 s on/off 60 pulse-per-min

Equipment busy
Congestion tone or no circuit available tone Blocking condition 0.2 s on, 0.3 s off 120 pulse-per-min

Essential Call Progress Signals

Ringing signal
20 Hz, 90 Vrms on for 2 sec off for 4 sec

Receiver on/off hook

On hook
used to terminate a call

Causes DC current (2080mA)to flow on the loop Request for service

Ring back
440 Hz & 480 Hz on for 2 sec off for 4 sec

Non-Essential Signaling & Call Progress Tones

Call waiting tones Hold Stutter dial tone (for voice mail) Calling card service tone Intrusion tones