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# Mechanical Work

## Sub Unit 2.1

Objectives

Define work done by a force or torque in a mechanical system. Explain the relationship between work, force applied, and the distance an object moves. Solve work problems, given force and distance information in English and SI units. Explain how efficiency relates to input work and output work for a mechanical system. Define radian measure of angles. Explain the relationship between work, torque applied, and the angle (in radians) through which and object moves. Solve work problems, given torque and angle information in English and SI units.

Work

Linear

When a force moves something a distance (like a pushing a car, moving a desk, lifting weights, etc.) When a torque causes rotational movement (like gears, pulleys, wheels, etc.)

Rotational

## Work done by a force

Work (W) = Force (F) x Distance (d)
Work Units
English foot pounds (ftlb) SI newton meters (Nm)

Force Units
English pounds SI newtons

Distance Units

English feet

SI meters

## 1 Newton meter (Nm) = 1 Joule (J)

Work
Uses magnitude of force and displacement (both are vectors) Can be positive (if both force and displacement are in same direction) Can be negative (if force and displacement are in opposite direction)

## Work equals change in energy

Like when the barbell gains gravitational potential energy due to the work done to lift it. Or when braking, the kinetic energy of vehicle decreases due to the work done by the brakes.

Efficiency
Machines convert work input to useful work output. Theoretically, work in equals work out. Realistically, work in is always greater than work out. Why? Losses

Efficiency =

Rotational Work