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SEMINAR ON

PREVENTIVE MAINTAINANCE AND CONDITION MONITORING FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS


PRESENTED BY M/s VISHVAS POWER ENGINEERING SERVICES PVT. LTD. NAGPUR

INFORMATION ABOUT COMPANY


NAMES OF DIRECTORS :Mr. R. M. Bhave : Mr.S.V.Dmello :Mr.Kiran Joharapurkar PRODUCT SKILLS OF DIRECTORS :HT switchgrars : Transformers (all make) :On load tap changers (all type) No. of engineers/site managers:10 Office staff:04 Other staff/skilled workers:80

INFORMATION ABOUT COMPANY

AREAS OF BUSINESS INTEREST


Capital overhaul/servicing of power transformers Servicing of SF6 breakers Servicing of on load tap changers. Annual maintenance contracts for substation and control room maintenance. Testing of oil and bushings. RLA studies on power transformers. Testing of oil and bushings. Installation services for power transformers, HT switchgears and substation equipments Retrofitting of LT air circuit breakers Installion of rubber balloons in conservator of power transformers to retard oxidation of oil Testing and commising of substations Testing of transformers

Doubts raised by users


Whether oil filteration or dry out Criterions of stopping dryout/filteration Whether overhauling/reinsulation Frequency of condition monitoring Oil mixing ---------- preconditions Dissolved Gas Analyis

PLEASE LET ME KNOW


WHAT YOU EXPECT FROM THIS SESSION?

Areas of concern
OIL PAPER Wood (treated / parmali WINDING TANK LEADS OLTC BUSHING COOLING BANKS/ HEAT EXCHANGER AUXILIARIES

IMPORTANT STANDARDS TRANSFORMER USER SHOULD KNOW

IS 335 IS 12463 IS 1866 IS 2099 IS 2026

TRANSFORMER FOR OVERHAULING

PROCESS OF OVERHAULING

TESTING

POST SHUT DOWN OBSERVATIONS

POST SHUT DOWN OBSERVATIONS(CONT..)

OIL DRAINING

DISMANTLING

125 MVA TOP COVER LIFTING

GASKET REPLACEMENT

INTERNAL INSPECTION

PREPARING TRS FOR EVACUATION

N2 PRESSURE TEST

VIEW OF LEAD TAKE OFF

IEEE GUIDELINES INTERNAL Inspection


Winding - Lead clamping Winding support system Clamping Insulation discoloration Lead distortion Lead movement Indications of hot spots

IEEE GUIDELINES INTERNAL Inspection


Loose connections Tap leads Bushings Terminal Boards Spacers Core bolt nuts. Contacts Operating mechanism Coupling shafts Shielding

Physical status-

IEEE guidelines for Internal Inspection


OilOdour Color Moisture Free Water

DiscolorationTerminals Corona shields Copper connectors Bus bars

Tank walls Bushing

Vacuum drying
Vacuum drying is based on the principle of Thermodynamics Boiling point of moisture in insulation is reduced by way of Pressure Reduction Principle Thermal energy needs to be imparted externally for achieving faster and better moisture extraction

DRY OUT PROCESS INVOLVING CYCLES

Vacuum drying( continued)


Under vacuum (pressure reduction)boiling point of water reduces to 500c medium of heating can be Old oil Nitrogen Hot air other methods of heating are also under use.

Process of dryout
Prepare TRS for evacuation Fill N2 over air to get pressure 0.2KG/CM2

Attend leakages

PRESSURE TEST

NITROGEN PRESSURE

Continue to heat till Core_< 70 c Med _< 75c Wdg _<70c

COMPARISON OF HEATING METHODS


OI L
REQUIRES OLD OIL FOR HEATING

NITROGEN
REQUIRES NITROGEN GAS

REQUIRES FILTER PLANT OIL RESERVIORS


REQUIRES LESS MONITORING

REQUIRES EXTRNAL HEATING ELEMENTS SUCH AS HEATERS


REQUIRES MORE VIGILLANT MONITORING

OIL SOAKED INSULATION DOES NOT RELEASE MOISTURE VERY FAST IF OIL IS ACIDIC THEN IT CAN AFFECT INSULATION PAPER THIS METHOD IS NOT CONSIDERED PRESENTLY AS USER FRIENDLY METHOD

DRY AND NON SOAKED INSULATION RELEASES MORE MOISTURE AND IN FASTER WAY IF NITROGEN IS PURE IT CANNOT AFFECT INSULATION PAPER & COPPER

OIL
MONITORING PARAMETERS ARE OIL BDV & MOISTURE CONTENT OF OIL USED FOR HEATING PURPOSE OIL WILL LOSE/REDUCE ITS PARAMETERS SUCH AS RESISTIVITY, TANDELTA WHEN HEATED ABOVE 600C

NITROGEN
THIS METHOD IS PRESENTLY CONSIDERED AS USER FRIENDLY AND TECHNICALLY BETTER . MONITORING PARAMETERES ARE CONPARISON OF IR VALUE AND DRYNESS OF NITROGEN GAS USED FOR HEATING PURPOSE NITROGEN HEATING

DOES NOT INVOLVE OIL HEATING ABOVE 600C

Details of nitrogen heating


Nitrogen gas: 99.6% pure
Dew point-40c & better Pressure gauge: 0.1 To 1.0KG/SQ.CM Vacuum gauge: MM scale: Bourden torr scale: Macleoid M-bar scale

HEATING ARRANGEMENT

VIEW OF HEATING ARRANGEMENT

HALOGEN HEATING OF TANK

VIEW OF SHED FOR HEATING

DRY OUT IN PROGRESS

PT 100 SENSOR FOR TEMPERATURE MONITORING

Heating cycle duration will depend upon size of trs

100-250 MVA 50 MVA

72 hrs 48 hrs

25 MVA

24hrs

Vacuum cycles 1 for 60/72 hrs

Heating cycles 2 :36/48 hours

Vacuum cycle 2 : 48/60 hrs

Heating cycle 3 :24/36 hrs

Vacuum cycle 3 :36 hrs

Heating cycle 4 :36 hrs

Vacuum cycle iv N2 filling Ir. value measurement dew pt measurement

Take vacuum and fill up oil While filling oil fill under vacuum and fill from top filler valve

Break vacuum over oil by N2/ dry air Oil toppling up oil circulation

Oil testing at site for BDV >_ 60 kV moisture content <- 10 ppm

Stop filtration if oil parameters are satisfactory as per voltage class of trs.

VIEW OF FILTERPLANT OIL TANK AND DG SET

TRANSFORMER AFTER OVERHAULING

TRENDS IN OIL
Napthene based oil

1. Low pour point enabling the use in low ambient temp.areas 2. Oxidation products are soluble in oil. 3. High resistivity. 4. High Viscosity. Paraffin based oil 1. High pour point but no problem in country like INDIA.

ALKYL BENZENE BASED OIL


1. Low Tan Delta 2. High resistivity. 3. No sludge. 4. Low viscosity. 5. Very low pour point. 6. Non hygroscopic and does not form gum and sludge.

OIL COMPARISION
PARAFFIN NAPTHA ABTO
TAN DELTA RESISTIVITY IFT VISCOCITY SLUDGE CONTENT

0.09 2*10 18 23 0.1

0.03 10*10 21 21 0.05

0.0009 50*10 42 15.1 NIL

SYNTHETIC OIL 1. Used due to fire resistance property 2. Contain polychlorinated biphenyl.
3. Hazardous for dumping in earth or otherwise.

EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT IN OIL ON IMPULSE STRENGTH

100%

70% IMPULSE STRENGTH

30 ppm

MOISTURE CONTENT

Oil color Interpretation


ASTM- color ASTM - D1500-91

Clear Pale yellow Yellow Bright yellow Amber Brown

New condition Good condition Service condition Marginal condition Bad condition Severe bad condition

OIL COLOUR INTERPRITATION


Dark brown - Extremely bad condition Sludge - To detect presence of pentane insoluble sludge in serviced oil THE TEST IS not Performed unless IFT <26 dynes/cm ACIDITY> 0.15 mg of KOH gm of oil

IS 335
Density Viscosity IFT Flash point Pour point BDV
TAN DELTA RESISTIVITY

o.89 gm/cm3 at 29.5 C 27 MAX at 27 C 0.04 N/M 1400c -60c 30 KV unfiltered 60 KV filtered 0.002 35*1012 ohm-cm AT 90 c 1500*1012 ohm-cm AT 27 c

IS 335
Acidity Sludge Corrosive sulphur oxidation inhibitor Water content 0.4(max) 0.1% (max) No traces 0.05% (max) 50 PPM max (unfiltered) 15 PPM max (filtered)

DISSOLVED GAS ANALYSIS


Most widely used and effective technique. Requires skill to draw inference. FAULTS Thermal aging - overhead metallic parts Partial discharge Arcing

FACTORS INFLUENCING GAS PRODUCTION


Meaningful assessment of a Transformer on basis of DGA is possible if information and data is considered on following factors which influence gassing rate & gassing comparison Oxygen content of oil Oil temperature Ambient temperature

Dissolved Gas Analysis


Methodology

Gas tight syringe with a 3 way stop cock Stainless steel tubular bottle Bottle capable of being air/gas tight with screwed cap

Labeling
Details of transformers Date of sampling History of transformers Temp of transformer Charged/service condition Ambient Temp.

STAGES Collection of oil sample. Extraction of gases in dissolved oil. Separation identification and quantitative determination of gas Interpretation.

Key gas and fault pattern


C2H2 (Acetylene) :Arcing H2 (Hydrogen) :Partial discharge C2H4 (Ethylene) :Oil overheating. Co/Co2 (Carbon monoxide & Carbon Dioxide) :Conductor overheating

Various h2 ch2 c2h6 c2h4 c2h2 co co2 sources IEEE 140 160 115 190 11 580 -GTR 100 120 65 50 35 350 2500 CIGRE 28.6 42.2 85.6 74.6 -- 289 3771 DOBLE 100 100 60 100 5 250 -New Trs 200 100 100 150 15 500 ---Old trs 250 200 200 300 35 1000 -Oil overheating c2h4 c2h6 ch4 Cellulose overheating co Partial discharge in oil h2 ch4 Arcing in oil c 2h 2 h 2

KEY GAS : Hydrogen

ARCING : Between leads. Leads to coil.

KEY GAS :Acetylene , Hydrogen

IEEE
Arcing :Acetylene C2H2 :Hydrogen H2 Carona : H2 Overheated oil :Ethylene C2H2 :Methane CH4

Thermal degradation of insulation material =Co, Co2, H2o Healthy ratio of Co/Co2 = 5 If ratio is below 3, it indicates severe overheating of paper. Oil degradation : Methane(CH4), Ethane(C2H6) Ethylene(C2H5) Partial Discharge : Occurs due to ionization in high stressed areas where gas/vapour filled voids.

STRATEGIC END OF LIFE ECONOMIC END OF LIFE TECHNICAL END OF LIFE


DEGREE OF POLYMERIZATION INITIAL : 1200 POOR : 300 AFFECTING PARAMETERS
TEMPERATURE MOISTURE ACIDITY

Comparison of Furful content in various generator transformers


Sr. Of GTR
1 2 3 4

Nameplate Calculated Actually Elapsed Found Furful Age age Furful Content mg/lit
15.60 14.66 6.0 5.0 0.216 0.180 0.030 0.027 3.170 0.150 0.035 0.032 29.30 13.65 6.30 6.00

Site A B C D

DP 392 710 978 458

Estim Furful Estim ated value ated age age 25.0 0.60 20.6 12.0 0.20 15.6 1.0 0.01 02.0 18.8 22.0 0.4

Interpretations of impedance test


Variation in short circuit impedance of a transformer winding indicates possible movement of winding/deformation within the transformer Variations upto 2% Variations upto 3% --Negligible --Significant

CASE III
16 MVA TRANS 110/22KV

2U-N 232 54 18

2V-N 175 232 215 95

2W-N 52 175 232 101.9

EXCITATION CURRENT IN MILI AMPS

350

AGEING OF INSULATING PAPER


With advanced instruments available for technical analysis of aged insulation it is possible to determine /measure following properties of insulation paper 1. Thickness 2. Water content 3. Tensile strength 4. Degree of polymerization

TENSILE STRENGTH 1. Determined as per IS 1924 determined in both machine direction and cross machine directions. 2. Deterioration of tensile strength is further dependent on temp. factor. 3. The rate of tensile strength deterioration is exponential with time.

Tensile strength

Ageing (days)

Degree of polymerization
This proves to be the most informative parameter for assessing the ageing or the process of ageing of cellulose . The connection between deterioration in material properties and formation of aging products is degree of polymerization. This is also direct decomposition of cellulose.

DETERIORATION OF PAPER

900 c Degree of polymeri zation 1200c 150

1050c

Days

Source documents / forums


IEEE ANSI I.S. C.B.I.P.s INT. Conference CIGREs working group Our own field experience

Abnormalities observed during internal inspection/ capital overhauling


EXTERNAL 1 Pumps running in reverse direction 2 Thermosyphon blanked 3 Thimble-terminal cap fusion due to heating.heat generated due to faulty term.connector. INTERNAL 1 Cotton tape used for gasket locating not removed causing leakage 2 Core bolt insulation zero 3 Selector switch contact arm assy not making adequate contact

Abnormalities(continued)
4 Bucholz pipeline slope not proper 5 Lens screw of OLTC shaft not properly fitted 6 Oil leakges in box type stiffner, between main tank and stiffner 4 Core earthing melted. Part of laminations fused.

BUSHING
TYPE
SRBP/OIP/RIP

TEST TAP
FOR MEASUREMENT MUST BE EARTHED PROPER EARTHING CORROSION OF THREADS ON CONNECTION CAUSES HIGH RESISTANCE AND SPARKING

3
Measurement of mounted bushing done in UST mode , using test tap connection

4
Measurement of winding is done in GST mode using connections between bushing top terminal and grounded.

1
GST SPECIMEN
INSULATION SPCIMEN IS GROUNDED

UST
UNGROUNDED

MEASURING UNGROUNDED GROUNDED/g IS PROVIDED CIRCUIT/ THROUGH EQUIPMENT


EQUIPMENT

2
10 kV is a referred as a preferred reference voltage although usually measurements of tan delta and capacitance should not vary with applied voltage. Usually measurements at 2 KV,5KV and 10KV are taken at site. Capacitance value measurement is equally important. Tan delta value measurement may get affected by conditions such as oil. temperature, humidity, surface cleanliness and inductions in the switchyard.

DGA OF OIL FOR BUSHING [IEC-36A]


Type of key gas H2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 2 2 CH CO 2 CO Permissible limit 100 ppm 30 ppm 50 ppm 300 ppm 02 ppm 1000 ppm 3000 ppm

Predictive maintenance for OLTC


Contact resistance measurement . Measurement of divertor motor acoustic signals. Temp difference between oil in main tank and oil in divertor switch. Dissolved gas analysis. Deposition of solid carbon.

Predictive maintenance(cont...)
Changes in switching time weak springs, Overhauling Contact wear

Precautionary steps for ensuring correct installations


Paper Moisture 420 KV 0.5 or less 245 KV less than1.0 145 KV less than 2 Oil Moisture 420 KV less than 10 245 KV less than 15 145 KV less than 20

SETTLING TIME
KV 420 KV 245 KV 145 KV Time 72 hours 48 hours 36 hours

Magnetic balance test is like a signature test Diagnostic tool with focus on current is more important Quality of core is not assessed if voltage distribution is in order but current are not then further analysis is required

Partial Discharge
1 Effective for comparing at factory/ at site after repairs. 2 Advanced diagnostic system used for off line PD detection. 3 Background noise suppression, using a Spectrum analyzer to do selective filtration.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS


Short circuit high fault currents can lead to displacement of windings. An already weak coil or an insulation system can fail, during over voltage stress. Background. Electrical measurements are not sufficient to indicate this type of displacement of coil or insulation.

Principle Deformation results in minor changes of internal inductance and capacitance of winding. These deformations can be noted by noting a difference in response of particular winding on network analyzer when 1 signal (sinusoidal) having frequency band 50 Hz to 500 Hz is connected to bushing and response is measured through neutral bus.

Procedure for FRA


Identify two ends of winding. Connect two cables from measuring Unit giving sinusoidal output of two V rms and one measuring input Other end of winding is connected to measuring input. Other windings are grounded. Voltage transfer function is measured for each winding for four frequency scans between 5 Hz to 2 MHz.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS


BENEFITS Immune to Electro-magnetic interference.

Easy to perform on site.


Identical results for similar transformers. DRAW BACKS Above data required effectively used more as signature

INDICATIONS Shift in response of winding Differences in response between phases of same transformer.
Difference between responses of transformer of same design.

CONTROL OF LEAKAGE FLUX IN POWER TRANSFORMER


NETT FLUX WHICH IS NOT LINKED BY BOTH COILS Magnetic flux which energizes core abd induces required flux density. Load flux which is balanced by load flux of secondary winding. Leakage flux which links the winding conductors and returns through a path outside the core.

EFFECT OF LEAKAGE FLUX


Leakage flux will follow a path of low resistance Will be attracted to magnetic steel. This induces Eddy Currents and hence generate heat. REMEDY Increase the distance of tank wall from source of leakage flux. Continuously transposed conductor (CTC). To provide shunt plates to carry leakage flux.

CASE STUDY PROBLEM

New 390 MVA generator transformer Core overheating Yoke overheating Tank & top cover overheating

VISIBLE EFFECTS Due To overheating caused by eddy currents flowing in top cover or bell cover visible deterioration of gasket was observed DESIGN REMEDY: To subdivide the plate width of outermost pockets Use of nonmagnetic material for frames. Use of flux shunt plates at LV side of the tank

CONCEPT OF AIR CELL


1. Oil Deteriorates majorly because of Oxidation.
2. Atmospheric breathing is a continuous process. 3. To avoid atmospheric breathing, rubber cell/balloon/separator is inserted in conservator. 4. The balloon / air cell is INFLATED INITIALLY. The breathing of transformer is then through this cell. 5. When air expands, air cell contracts. 6. When oil contracts , air cell expands 7. There can be a substantial reduction in oil deterioration, preserving or at least retarding its increase parameters like acidity moisture content and dielectric dissipation factor.

THERMOSYPHON FILTER CHAMBERS


1 2
3 4 On line acidity Reduction Acidity of oil is bad for insulation. Aluminum granules can reduce acidity and Fullers earth can reduce acidity. Above materials are contained in cylinder chamber/chambers in wire mesh. Cylinder/ cylinders are fitted to transformer tank and connected through valves. Oil passing through the column of Alumina or fullers earth reduces the acidity Continuous use of facility can help in maintaining acidity low since commissioning.

5
6

Hydran 2011 system


Continuos monitoring of key gases Alarm facility Hourly and daily changes in level Adjustable alarm levels Self test system Possibility of connection to SCADA systems

SF6 INSULATED TRANSFORMERS


MANUFACTURING RANGE: 275KV300MVA
COMPACT SIZE REDUCED SIZE EXTRA LIFE HIGHER COST ALMOST DOUBLE RATE OF LOWERING DP VALUE IS RELATIVELY MUCH SLOWER IN SF6 THAN NITROGEN AND OIL

THANK YOU

FILTER PLANT HIGH VACUUM WITH DOUBLE DEGASSING CHAMBER

TRANSFORMER ASSEMBLY IN PROGRESS