Biodiesel Feed Stock, Production Technology

BIODIESEL CONCEPT
Diesel (Petroleum derived) Oil When Substituted Partly or Wholly by a Liquid Fuel Derived from Renewable Resource Materials

Rudolf Diesel First Demonstrated in 1900 that Renewable Resource Material like Groundnut (Peanut) oil as a Fuel in Diesel Engine in Place of Petroleum Diesel Without any Problem.

Biodiesel The present Concept Conversion of Oils/Fats to Alkyl Esters of Monohydric Alcohols to overcome Problems of High Viscosity. . High Boiling Point and Reactivity make Biodiesel is Now Defined Exclusively as the ‘Monoalkyl’ Esters of the Long Chain Fatty Acids Derived from the Oils/Fats of Vegetable and Animal Origins that Fulfill almost all the Requirements of Petroleum-Derived Diesels.

Coconut. .BIODIESEL FEEDSTOCK (A) Oils & Fats of Plant And Animal Origins (B) Refinery byproducts like (1) Fatty Acid Distillates (FADs) (Palm FADs). Rice bran. (2)Acid Oils (Soyabean. (C) Used Oils Like Frying Oils. Mustard).

CPO MILLING .

TRADITIONAL COCONUT OIL PRODUCTION .

TRADITIONAL COCONUT OIL PRODUCTION .

separations Triglyceride .

LABORATORY SCALE PRODUCTION .

.ESTERIFICATION The reaction fatty acid with an produces ester and water. Esters can be produced under conditions of low or high temperature and the crude product is distilled. bleached and deodorised as appropriate before a pure ester is produced. The Alcohol of+ Acid the alcoholbecause they have low solubility  Ester + Water esters can be separated from water in it .

CATALYST Chemical catalyst process Biocatalyst process .

H3PO4 (ii) Transesterification with a base catalyst NaOH. . Two-Step Process on oils Containing FREE FATTY ACIDS (I) Esterification with Conc.Chemical Catalyst Process One Step Process with a Base Catalyst like Sodium Hydroxide or Potassium Hydroxide or their Alkoxides when the Oils/Fats are Refined (RBD). H2SO4. KOH or High Pressure Esterification and Alcoholysis for straight way conversion to Biodiesel.

Esterification Lipase R.COOMe + H2O .COOH + MeOH R.One-Step Biocatalyst Process for Biodiesel Production Simultaneous Esterification And Transesterification (Alcoholysis) of Triglyceride Oils.

Candida Antartica & Lipase 3A (1. Candida Rugosa.COOMe + CHOH Lipase Lipase Candida Cylindraceae.TRANSESTERIFICATION CH2OCOR CH2OH CHOCOR + 3MeOH CH2OCOR CH2OH 3 R.3-specific lipase) .

F.5% F.A.6-2 Times . Single Stage or Direct Transesterification (Alcoholysis) Process.Chemical Process For Biodiesel Production A. Refined or Neutral Oil (< 1.)‫‏‬ + Alcohol (Methanol) 1.

5% or NaOMe 0.5% or Less ALKYL ESTER PRODUCT Necessary Post-Treatment BIODIESEL (95% yield of 97% purity)‫‏‬ .3-1.Theoretical Amount Base Catalyst 500C-700C KOH OR NaOH 4-6 Hr. 0.

A 1000-1200C/10-12 hrs.1-1% on F.6-2 Times (Conc. Phase Ester Phase Glycerol .B. 1st STAGE ESTERIFICATION PROCESS Acid Catalyst + Alcohol (1.F.Or 350C/2 hrs. H2SO4 the Th. Basis Or 600C/4-5 hrs. Amount) 0.1-2 hrs. TWO-STAGE (COMBINED ESTERIFICATION AND TRANSESTERIFICATION) PROCESS.

Alkyl Ester Phase Purification Glycerol Phase Acidified Final Ester Biodiesel Glycerol Phase Acidic Esters Purification .2nd STAGE TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS ESTER PHASE Base Reflux Or at 600C Catalyst For 0.5-6hrs.

AUTOCATALYTIC ESTERIFICATION PROCESS Acidic Oils (>5% FFA) Or Acid Oils (>50% FFA)‫‏‬ Esterifying Agent 1800C-2200C Like Glycerol 2-6 Torr. (Theoretical Or 6-12 hrs 20-60% Excess Over theoretical Neutral Oil Transesterification Process Methyl Ester Purification Biodiesel Glycerol (Recycled in the Esterification)‫‏‬ .

TRANSESTERIFICATION WITH SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION Oil + Methanol (1:42 )‫‏‬ 300-5000C 300 Atmospheres Times 3-4 minutes Methyl Esters (98% Conversion)‫‏‬ .

Biodiesel By Blending of Vegetable Oil With Short Chain Alcohol and an Amphiphilic Compound Vegetable Oil 1-ALKANOL Methanol Or Ethanol Stable Solution (Liquid)‫‏‬ (With Viscosity Sufficiently low for use as Diesel Fuel)‫‏‬ .

02 < 0.BIODIESEL STANDARDS Linolenic Acid Methanol Content Monoglycerides Diglycerides Triglycerides Free Glycerol Total Glycerol Alkali Metals Alkali Earth Metals Phosphorus Content < 12% < 0.0 > 0.25 < 0.02% > 1.38 < 5 ppm < 5 ppm < 10 ppm .25 > 0.

FEEDSTOCK • • • • MINYAK NABATI KW 1 (FFA <5%)‫‏‬ MINYAKNABATI KW 2 (FFA > 5%. <20%)‫‏‬ MINYAK NABATI KW 3 (FFA>20. <70%)‫‏‬ PFAD (FFA >70%)‫‏‬ PROSES KIMIA • • Esterifikasi Transesterifikasi .

Teknologi proses FEEDSTOCK METHANOL Process conditions     High temperature Medium temperature Low temperature + Catalyst Low temperature + Enzyme 150 oC > 100 – 130 oC 50 – 80 oC + Catalyst 30 – 50 oC + Enzyme BIODIESEL GLYCEROL / WATER .

8 3.Examples (Batch Reaction)‫‏‬ Oil Crude Palm Oil Crude Palm Stearin Rapeseed Sunflower Coconut Palm Kernel Soya bean Corn Tallow FFA(%) 4.5 1.2 1.2 3.6 3.3 9.5 3.9 Yield of Methyl Ester(%)‫‏‬ 96 98 95 94 98 98 95 96 93 .5 3.

872-0.872 VISCOSITY 400C 4.877 0.3-4.4 MJ/L 30.7 CETANE NUMBER 64.3-70 62.7 HEATING VALUE 32.FUEL CHARACTERISTICS OF METHYL ESTERS OF VARIOUS VEGETABLE OILS CHARACTERISTICS TESTED METHYL ESTER PALM OIL COCONUT DENSITY 150C 0.5 2.8 MJ/L .

830-0.0 4.2 4.5 51.2 45.7MJ/L 35.885 TYPICAL DIESEL FUEL .8MJ/L 32.0 32.5MJ/L SUNFLOWER 0.8MJ/L 32.880 0.7 61.0-3.0-59.882 0.7-56 51.METHYL DENSITY VISCOSITY CETANE HEATING ESTER RAPESEED 150C 400C NUMBER VALUE (LEAR) SOYABEAN 0.0 2.840 4.

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