Musculoskeletal system
• Consists of
– Muscles – Tendon – Ligaments – Bones – Cartilage – Joints – Bursae

• Gives the human body its shape and ability to move

Musculoskeletal system
+ nervous system = voluntary movements • Nervous system impulses  contraction • Contraction— muscle shortens— pulling on the bones to which it's attached

• Most movement involves groups of muscles



STRUCUTRE OF BONE • Diaphysis • Epiphyses • Metaphyses – Epiphyseal plate • Articular cartilage: hyaline .

• Periosteum • Medullary cavity • Endosteum STRUCUTRE OF BONE .

• Deposition of mineral salts into the collagen framework of bone

initiated by osteoblasts – Matrix
• 25% water • 25% collagen fibers: flexibility, strength • 50% crystallized mineral salts (Hydroxyapatite (calcium
phosphate, calcium carbonate) 50%) – strength

Osteogenic cells: stem cells Osteoblast: bone-building cells; organic componentes Osteocytes: mature bone cells; metabolism Osteoclasts: fusion of monocytes; bone remodeling (resorption)

Bone tissue
• Compact bone
– Cortical

• Spongy bone
– Cacellous – trabecular

Compact bone


Blood and nerve supply • Periosteal arteries • Nutrient arteries • Metaphyseal arteries • Epiphyseal arteries .

calcificaiton. development of periosteum • Endochondral ossification . formation of trabeculae.Bone formation • Intramembranous ossification – Dev’t of center of ossification.

Endochondral ossification .



Bone growth • Growth in length • Appositional growth .thickness .

Growth in length .


Bone homeostasis .






cartilage .Joints Arthroses Bone-bone Bone-teeth Bone.

Classification of joints • Presence of synovial cavity and connective tissue type – Fibrous – Cartilagenous – Synovial • Movement – Synarthroses – ampiarthroses – diarthroses .


SUTURES • thin layer of fibrous connective tissue .

more fibrous connective tissue .Syndesmoses • more space than a suture.

Gomphoses • teeth in sockets of upper and lower jaw .

Synchondroses • hyaline cartilage connecting bones .

Symphyses • fibrocartilage connecting bones (with a thin layer of hyaline cartilage on the bone) .

allows diffusion of nutrient and wastes SYNOVIAL JOINTS .• Most moveable Articular capsule: dense irregular and regular connective tissue synovial membrane: lines the capsule. lubricates. secretes synovial fluid Synovial fluid: viscous. clear fluid.

menisci . not covered by synovial membrane Options: discs.Articular cartilage: covers epiphyses of bone.



The muscles Functions –Move bones –Maintain posture –Heat production .

CARDIAC (HEART) MUSCLE Striated Branched Centrally located nucleus Involuntary Visceral (involuntary) muscle Nucleus centrally located Skeletal (voluntary and reflex) muscle Striated Multi-nucleated Nucleus peripherally located ~ 600 .

Functions • Move body parts or the body as a whole • Responsible for voluntary and reflex movements • Maintain posture • Thermogenesis • Movement and regulation of body contents .


Muscle structure • Structures – Endomysium—a sheath of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the exterior of the fiber – Sarcolemma—the plasma membrane of the cell that lies beneath the endomysium and just above the cells' nuclei .

Muscle structure • Perimysium—fibrous sheath of connective tissue—binds muscle fibers into a bundle. or fasciculus • Epimysium—a stronger sheath—binds all of the fasciculi together to form the entire muscle .

individual contractile proteins that make up the myofibril. There are two types of myofilaments • Actin (thin) • Myosin (fat) . – Myofilaments .– Myofibril – a cylindrical bundle of contractile filaments within the skeletal muscle cell.



or aponeurosis. and attaches to the bone . either directly or indirectly • Direct attachment—the epimysium to periosteum • Indirect attachment—the epimysium extends past the muscle as a tendon.Muscle attachments • Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones.

Moments of contraction • Moments of contraction • Contraction—one bone stays relatively stationary while the other is pulled in toward the stationary one • Origin—point where the muscle attaches to the stationary or less movable bone—usually lies on the proximal end of the bone • Insertion—point where muscle attaches to the more movable bone—on the distal end .

Muscle growth • Muscle develops when existing muscle fibers hypertrophy • Muscle strength and size differ among individuals because of such factors as exercise. nutrition. and genetic constitution . gender.

Muscle movements • Skeletal muscle permits several types of movement • Muscle's functional name comes from the type of movement it permits – Flexor muscle permits bending (flexion) – Adductor muscle permits moving away from a body axis (adduction) – Circumductor muscle allows a circular movement (circumduction) .

Muscles of the axial skeleton • Essential for respiration • Include: – muscles of the face. tongue. and neck – muscles of mastication – muscles of the vertebral column situated along the spine .

Muscles of the appendicular skeleton • Include: – shoulder – abdominopelvic cavity – upper and lower extremities • Muscles of the upper extremities are classified according to the bones they move • Muscles that move the arm are further categorized into: – those with an origin on the axial skeleton – those with an origin on the scapula .

Tendons • Bands of fibrous connective tissue • Attach muscles to the periosteum • Enable bones to move when skeletal muscles contract .

strong. flexible bands of fibrous connective tissue • Bind bones to other bones .Ligaments • Dense.

or axis.Bones • Human skeleton contains 206 bones – 80 form the axial skeleton—called axial because it lies along the central line. of the body . or appendages. of the body – 126 form the appendicular skeleton—relating to the limbs.

Bones of the axial skeleton – facial and cranial bones – hyoid bone – vertebrae – ribs and sternum .

fibula. and phalanges . radius. and phalanges – pelvic bone – femur. patella. ulna. carpals. tarsals. metatarsals.Bones of the appendicular skeleton – clavicle – scapula – humerus. tibia. metacarpals.

Bone classification • Classified by shape – Long (such as the humerus. radius. ribs. and skull) – Irregular (such as the vertebrae and mandible) – Sesamoid (such as the patella) . and tibia) – Short (such as the carpals and tarsals) – Flat (such as the scapula. femur.

and tendon attachment • Move through ―lever‖ action when contracted • Produce red blood cells in the bone marrow (hematopoiesis) • Store mineral salts .Bone functions • Protect internal tissues and organs • Stabilize and support the body • Provide a surface for muscle. ligament.

Blood supply • Blood reaches bones through three paths: – Haversian canals—minute channels that lie parallel to the axis of the bone—passages for arterioles – Volkmann's canals—contain vessels that connect one Haversian canal to another and to the outer bone – Vessels in the bone ends and within the marrow .

the fetal skeleton is composed of cartilage • By about 6 months. fetal cartilage has been transformed into bony skeleton • After birth. some bones—most notably the carpals and tarsals—ossify (harden) • Change results from endochondral ossification—a process by which osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) produce osteoid (a collagenous material that ossifies) .Bone formation • At 3 months in utero.

Bone remodeling • Remodeling—the continuous process whereby bone is created and destroyed • Osteoblasts and osteoclasts—two types of osteocytes— are responsible for remodeling • Osteoblasts—deposit new bone • Osteoclasts— increase long-bone diameter and promote longitudinal bone growth by reabsorbing the previously deposited bone • Epiphyseal plates—cartilage that separate the diaphysis. or shaft of a bone. or end of a bone . from the epiphysis.

Cartilage • Dense connective tissue that consists of fibers embedded in a strong. such as the auditory canal and the intervertebral disks • Cushions and absorbs shock. preventing direct transmission to the bone • Has no blood supply or innervation . gel-like substance • Has the flexibility of firm plastic • Supports and shapes various structures.

and nasal septum .• Hyaline cartilage – Most common type – Covers the articular bone surfaces—where one or more bones meet at a joint – Connects the ribs to the sternum – Appears in the trachea. bronchi.

• Fibrous cartilage – Forms the symphysis pubis and the intervertebral disks – Composed of small quantities of matrix and abundant fibrous elements – Strong and rigid .

external ear.• Elastic cartilage – Located in the auditory canal. and epiglottis – Large numbers of elastic fibers give this type of cartilage elasticity and resiliency .

Joints • Articulations • points of contact between two bones that hold bones together and allow flexibility and movement • Classification – function—extent of movemen – structure—what they're made of .

Functional classification of joints • Synarthrosis—immovable • Amphiarthrosis—slightly movable • Diarthrosis—freely movable .

and gomphoses (such as the dental alveolar joint) .Structural classification of joints • Fibrous joints – Articular surfaces of the two bones are bound closely by fibrous connective tissue – A little movement is possible – Include sutures. syndesmoses (such as the radioulnar joints).

• Cartilaginous joints – – – – Also called amphiarthroses Cartilage connects one bone to another Allow slight movement Synchondroses—typically. the epiphyseal plates of long bones – Symphyses—joints with an intervening pad of fibrocartilage—for example. the symphysis pubis . temporary joints in which the intervening hyaline cartilage converts to bone by adulthood—for example.

• Synovial – Bony surfaces in the synovial joints— separated by a viscous. lubricating fluid (the synovia) and by cartilage – Joined by ligaments lined with a synoviaproducing membrane – Freely movable – Include most joints of the arms and legs .

• Other features of synovial joints include: – joint cavity—-a potential space that separates the articulating surfaces of the two bones – articular capsule—a saclike envelope with outer layer that is lined with a vascular synovial membrane – reinforcing ligaments—fibrous tissue that connects bones within the joint and reinforces the joint capsule .

Types of synovial joints • Gliding – Flat or slightly curved articular surfaces – Allow gliding movements – May not allow movement in all directions – Examples: intertarsal and intercarpal joints .

• Hinge – Convex portion of one bone fits into a concave portion of another – Movement resembles that of a metal hinge – Movement is limited to flexion and extension – Examples: elbow and knee .

• Pivotal – Rounded portion of one bone fits into a groove in another bone – Allow only uniaxial rotation of the first bone around the second – Example: head of the radius—rotates within a groove of the ulna .

extension. adduction. and circumduction – Examples: radiocarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand . abduction.• Condylar joints—oval surface of one bone fits into a concavity in another bone – Allow flexion.

• Saddle joints – Resemble condylar joints but allow greater freedom of movement – Carpometacarpal joints of the thumb—only saddle joints in the body .

• Ball-and-socket joint – Gets its name from the way its bones connect – Spherical head of one bone fits into a concave ―socket‖ of another bone – Shoulder and hip joints—body's only ball-andsocket joints .

Bursae • Small synovial fluid sacs • Located at friction points around joints between tendons. ligaments. and bones • Act as cushions to decrease stress on adjacent structures • Examples include: – subacromial bursa (located in the shoulder) – prepatellar bursa (located in the knee) .

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