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Well Testing – Msc Petroleum Engineering Dept. – Cairo University.

Outlines

• Introduction • Gas Well Test Evaluation Sheet • Shallow Low-Pressure and Highly Productive Gas Reservoir. • Stimulation Efforts Evaluation , Summery and recommendation. • References

. It also includes a gas well test evaluation sheet and various cross plotting techniques before and after workovers. high permeability. conclusions.Introduction • This Presentation shows various field case studies in low. and fractured carbonate gas wells including summary. and recommendations.

Gas Well Test Evaluation Sheet .

Interpreted Data • • • • • MBH correction: tp (hr) tpDA (dimensionless time) Buildup slope m(mmpsia2/cP) (Pwfo) (mmpsia2/cP) (Pwf) t=1 (mmpsia2/cP) .

Calculated Data .

Pressure Data .

highly productive reservoir. In fact.Shallow Low-Pressure and Highly Productive Gas Reservoirs • The following example illustrates how to determine the stabilized deliverability curve and AOF. . it was observed that pressures stabilized almost instantaneously after each rate change. One and one-half durations of each flow period was enough to reach stabilization of flowing wellbore pressure. Example .1 A gas well produces from a shallow low-pressure. The well has been tested by a multirate test and the results are plotted in Figure 1.

Shallow Low-Pressure and Highly Productive Gas Reservoirs .

Shallow Low-Pressure and Highly Productive Gas Reservoirs • The log-log backpressure plot gives a straight line which defines a backpressure exponent n = 1 /slope = 0.56. • The backpressure coefficient is calculated from the curve as .

A Cartesian plot of p2/qsc versus qsc (Figure 1) gives a straight line (except for a small deviation and the low rate point). .538 mmscfd.Shallow Low-Pressure and Highly Productive Gas Reservoirs The backpressure equation is The absolute open flow is 45.

Shallow Low-Pressure and Highly Productive Gas Reservoirs • The intercept of the line is A = 0.00145 psia2/scfd/D And the slope is • If the rate needs to be written in terms of flowing pressure. the quadratic equation can be solved as follows: .

• The slope B in Figure 1 indicates the significance of the high-velocity effect on the productivity of the well. .Conclusion • The low n value and the high B value indicate large rate-dependent skin. • The intercept A is related to steady-state skin factor. • A large slope implies large rate-dependent skin.

and high permeability gas reservoirs. and reservoir limit test analysis. Summary.Stimulation Efforts Evaluation. and gas in place in low. Horner. and Recommendations • This section presents methods used to determine absolute open flow potential (AOF). overall skin factors. average reservoir pressure. type curves. • Test analysis methods examined include deliverability. formation permeability. .

conclusions.Stimulation Efforts Evaluation. • One case is for a low-permeability gas reservoir.as well as high-permeability gas reservoirs. . an recommendations of two field case studies. These two cases demonstrate well test analysis applications in low. the other is for a high permeability gas reservoir. Summary. and Recommendations • It also includes a brief summary.

The overall thickness is about 52 ft with average porosity of about 14 to 20%. • The empirical deliverability equations are . Nilam Gas Field. Indonesia • Case Studies: Nilam Gas Field. Well # N-38/gas.950 ft deep and consists of layers of clay and sandstone.Low-Permeability Gas Well. Zone G-5OA • The reservoir is 12.

Indonesia • Stabilized flow equations are also developed using the LIT() approach to estimate deliverability potential of this gas well against any sandface pressure. . that it is a low-permeability gas reservoir (see Table 1 for a summary of results). • The values of exponent n = 1 and formation permeability = 8. Nilam Gas Field.274 mD indicate.Low-Permeability Gas Well.

Nilam Gas Field. Indonesia • The laminar-inertial-turbulent (LIT) flow equations are .Low-Permeability Gas Well.

Indonesia • Returning again to the Forscheimer equation Kh is small (339.23 mD) . and the B qsc term can become negligible (not necessarily zero) when compared to the laminar pressure drop term. We could then write . Nilam Gas Field.Low-Permeability Gas Well. A qsc becomes large.

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