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“A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life.”
Tanner, Austin, Logan
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Fpy63S0 5Vw&feature=results_video&playnext=1&list= PL6DBAEC65AA8F5C8E
• Born: February 12, 1809 • Shrewsbury, England • Died: April 19, 1882
• Describes himself as being a rather "naughty" child. • Charles Darwin was a lazy young man, and a slow learner in school. He was at first educated by his sister, Caroline, before attending Revd. Case's grammar school in Shrewsbury.
• The first sparks of interest in natural history were developed very early in his childhood. Darwin relates how his mother, Susannah, taught him how to change the color of flowers by giving them water mixed with food coloring. • As a young boy he delighted in collecting minerals, insects, coins, stamps and other odd bits.
• He developed his love of natural science through hiking, reading books, and chemistry at an early age. • As he got older, his love and interest for natural science became deeper: • -Learned how to stuff animals • -Read aninteresting book on natural history • -Spent time at the natural history museum in Edinburgh • -Joined the Plinian Society • -Became a good friend of Professor Robert Grant.
Voyage of the Beagle
• Darwin was offered the position of naturalist for the second voyage of H. M. S. Beagle to survey the coast of South America. The Beagle left in December 1831 and returned in October 1836. During the voyage Darwin studied many different plants and animals and collected many specimens, concentrating on location and habits.
Voyage of the Beagle
• Darwin noticed on the trip that certain types of organisms existed only in certain areas and that many organisms had gone through changes that made it easier for them to survive in certain environments. • He studied a type of bird called a finch and realized that there were over a dozen different kinds. The size and shape of the beaks of these birds differed depending on what kind of food was available in the area each lived in.
Major Published Works
• The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle • The Descent of Man • On the Origin of Species
• http://www.notablebiographies.com/CoDa/Darwin-Charles.html#b • http://darwin-online.org.uk/contents.html • http://www.aboutdarwin.com/darwin/WhoW as.html
Ideas Prior To Darwin
• Lamarck and others believed that evolution was guided by a long-term trend. • Lamarck thought that life strove over time to rise from simple single-celled forms to complex ones. • Many German biologists believed life and evolution followed predetermined rules.
• Species change over time and space. • Forms of a creature now resemble but are not the same as those that live in the past. • Forms of creatures living in different geographic areas might be the same species but have a slight difference do to distance. • This is even shown in fossils dating hundreds of thousands of years ago
Darwin’s Theory Cont’d
• Organisms are related to other organisms in past times - Far enough back any organism can relate to another. • Humans shared a ancestry with chimpanzees about 8 million years ago, with whales about 60 million years ago, and with kangaroos over 100 million years ago. • Shared ancestry explains the similarities of organisms that are classified together - their similarities reflect the inheritance of traits from an ancestor in the past.
Darwin’s Theory Cont’d
• Evolutionary change, or Natural Selection, is a long slow process. • This is proven through documents on organisms then and now and through fossil records. • This process could be considered slow by a few years or so to long in which progress would be shown through hundreds or thousands of years.
• Variation. Organisms (within populations) exhibit individual variation in appearance and behavior. These variations may involve body size, hair color, facial markings, voice properties, or number of offspring. • Inheritance. Some traits are consistently passed on from parent to offspring. Other traits are strongly influenced by environmental conditions and show weak heritability. • High rate of population growth. Most populations have more offspring each year than local resources can support leading to a struggle for resources. • Individuals possessing traits well suited for the struggle for local resources will contribute more offspring to the next generation, carrying on their “legacy” so to speak.
Darwin’s Famous Finches
The “Peppered” Moth
The Rat Snake
• "Evolution and Natural Selection." Evolution and Natural Selection. University of Michigan, 10, Oct, 2012. Web. 13 Mar 2012. <http://globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/s election/selection.html>. • Natural Selection, . "Natural Selection: Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace." Understanding evolution. University of California, Berkely, 2012. Web. 13 Mar 2012. <http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/history_14>. • O'Neil, D.. "Darwin and Natural Selection." Early theories of evolution. anthro.palomar.edu, 2011. Web. 13 Mar 2012. <http://anthro.palomar.edu/evolve/evolve_2.htm>. • Rothman, R.. "Land Birds." Darwins finhes. firstname.lastname@example.org, n.d. Web. 13 Mar 2012. <http://people.rit.edu/rhrsbi/GalapagosPages/DarwinFinch.html>.
Concept introduce by Darwin in “The Origin of Species”.
• The sexual selection concept arises from the observation that many animals develop features whose function is not to help individuals survive, but help them to maximize their reproductive success.
• Sexual Selection not on a struggle for existence, but on a struggle between the males for possession of the females; the result is usually not death to the unsuccessful competitor, but few or no offspring. • An example of this is two whitetail bucks
• When males and females of any animal have the same general habits of life, but differ in structure, color, or ornament is caused by sexual selection.
• Male deer also called bucks grow a new set of antlers every year. • They start growing around End of April and into May, and they shed them around January and February. • During peek growing stage in the late summer months, antlers can grown up to ½ inch per day. • The growth depends on the genes, and nutrition of the deer.
• When antler growth begins the antlers or bone grows with a velvet structure with is full of blood vessels and carries the nutrients and protein needed for the antler to grow. • The antlers on a buck are his main source of defending himself, his territory, and overall getting his pick of the does.
Velvet Buck No Velvet
• All male species have tendencies to be the dominate male in the group, also known as the Alfa male. • Wild turkeys show this by a form of show with their feathers called strutting. • Most male ground birds have some form of strut to attract attention from the females, and also show dominance.
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fcJ5as1Okj o&feature=related
• Wild male turkeys called “toms” use several ways to show dominance among other birds. • They strut or display their feathers to make them look big and attract female turkeys or “hens”. • Toms are equipped with a set of spurs for fighting other turkeys and predators. • Turkey spurs can grow over an inch and half and are sharp.
Typically the older the bird the longer and sharper the spurs are.
• Almost all male species guard and protect their territories. • They do this by showing dominance, such as fighting or strutting. • Whitetail bucks to this by marking trees with their antlers called “rubs”, and also marking ground with their hooves called “scrapes”.
Rubs & Scrapes
• Bucks also have very strong scent glands like a lot of male species, they use these scent glands to also mark territories.
Big Horn Sheep
• Males also called “Rams” use there massive horns to fight with other rams for females and dominance. • Rams have been seen fighting for over 24 hours, and their horns can weigh up to 30 pounds. • They can reach speeds up to 20 mph before impact.
Big Horn Sheep
• The fighting continues until one ram gives up, or serious injury occurs. • Rams have thick boned skulls that help protect them from the impact.
Big Horn Sheep
• Kentucky’s state bird is the cardinal or also called the red bird. • The northern cardinal is a songbird, attracting females through bird singing. • The males and females differ in color, male being more bright red and the female with orange undertone.
Importance of Wildlife
• Wildlife pays a vital role for human existence, and resources. • Wildlife, in fact, comprises of the innumerous varieties of wild plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms that exist on our planet earth, rather than just cultivated plants and domesticated animals.
• The food we eat, the clothes we wear, the medicines we consume, a variety of building materials used for construction, numerous chemicals used for manufacturing our necessities, all are extracted from the wildlife existing around us. • It is important to study and understand how animals act and react to each other, an their environment.
• Since prehistoric times, animals have been highly useful to us in providing food, clothing and source of income.
• Wildlife plays an essential role in the ecological and biological processes that are yet again significant to life. The normal functioning of the biosphere depends on endless interactions amongst animals, plants, and microorganisms. This, in turn, maintains and enhances human life further. To add on, these ecological processes are vital for agriculture, forestry, fisheries and other endeavors that support human life.
• Charles Darwin gave us ideals and theory's that we can use today in discovering why animals act and do the things they do.