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MEK 10803

Power Factor
&
Power Quality

Introduction
Outlines
2
Review of AC analysis
Power Factor
Power Factor Correction
Harmonics in Power Systems
Voltage Sags
Voltage Swells
Transients
Standards for Power Quality
Review of AC analysis
3
What do PQ Engineers regularly calculate by
hand?
Apparent Power
Voltage or Current Imbalance
Capacitor bank sizes for power factor correction
Percent voltage flicker

Review of AC analysis
4
What do we use software to calculate?
Harmonic derating for transformers
Symmetrical components
Harmonic spectrum (Fourier Series)
Power factor
Real and Reactive Power
Distortion
AC calculations
5
Symmetrical Components: C. Fortescue, 1918
Three unbalanced phasors can be
represented by three sets of balanced
phasors.
This powerful mathematical tool greatly
simplifies the analysis of unbalanced
faults.
Symmetrical Components
6
Positive, negative, and zero sequence phasors
combine to form the unbalanced set.
Finding symmetrical components
7
The a operator: a:=1 120
Multiplying a phasor by a or a2
rotates the phasor by 120 or -120
degrees.
When expressing symmetrical
components, it is only necessary to
list the A-phase components.
Finding symmetrical components
8
Positive sequence components

Negative sequence components

Zero sequence components

Matrix form of the equations
9
To find the symmetrical components for a
set of unbalanced phasors:
Matrix form of the equations
10
To find the unbalanced phasors from a set of
symmetrical components:
Finding symmetrical components
11
The symmetrical components for this unbalance
set of phasors:
What do we do with
the symmetrical components?
12
Fault identification
We may be able to study the symmetrical
components of the voltages recorded during a
fault to determine what type of fault occurred.
Calculation of voltage unbalance
Voltage unbalance can cause a large current
unbalance in three-phase motors and three
phase diode rectifiers.

Calculating voltage unbalance
13
With symmetrical components (true
unbalance):
NEMA definition:
Lets compare methods
14
For the voltages given on slide 11:
Power Factor and Power Factor
Correction
15
PQ engineers may be called on to assist
customers with sizing power factor
correction capacitors.
Power factor correction capacitors, or
caps as utility engineers call them,
provide reactive power, or considered
another way, consume negative reactive
power.
Power Factor Correction
16
Large customers are often subject to a
power factor penalty for having a low
power factor.
Example: A customer has a balanced
2.4MW load operating at 480V at a
lagging power factor of 75%. The
customer wants to correct the power
factor to 90% or better.
The reactive power drawn by the
load
17
Size of Capacitor Bank

18
First, calculate the remaining reactive power
requirement:

Correction = initial VAR need final VAR need

Lets say the customer installs a 1200kVAR
capacitor.

What is Power Factor
19
With the 1200kVAR capacitor:
u
REACTIVE power (Q)
ACTIVE power (P)
(Power Factor Angle)
Reduction in current from the 480V
service
20
Load current without capacitors:


Reduction in current from the 480V
source
21
Load current with capacitors
u cos
S(kVA)
P(kW)
Factor Power = =
Lagging (Inductive Loads)
Leading (Capacitive Loads)
Power Factor Correction
22
Example 1:

An industrial consumer has the following loads:
i. 9 kW of lighting at unity PF
ii. A motor taking 12 kVA at 0.75 PF lagging
iii. A number of small motors taking 15 kW at 0.6 PF
lagging.
The loads are balanced over the three phases of 400 V
supply system. Determine:
a) The total kW, kVAr, kVA.
b) The overall power factor
c) The line current

Power Factor Correction
23
Solution:


Load kW kVAr
i 9 0
ii 9 7.936
iii 15 20
Total 33 27.936
lag 0.763
kVA 43.23
kW 33
factor power Overall = =
A 62.4
V 400 3
kVA 43.23
I current Line
L
=

=
kVA 43.23 27.936 33 kVA Overall
2 2
= + =
Power Factor Correction
24
Example 2:

Calculate:
a) The total kVAr to be supplied by a capacitor bank in
order to improve the overall power factor of the system
of Example 1 to 0.9 PF lagging;
b) The value of capacitance required assuming that the
capacitors are connected (i) in star, (ii) in delta.

Power Factor Correction
25
Solution:


u
1
27.936 kVAr
33 kW
u
2
?? kVAr
A
B
C
O
=
=
25.84
.9 0 Cos
2
2
u
u
phase) - (1 kVAr 3.989 11.966/3 BC
phase) - (3 kVAr 11.966 ) 25.84 tan (33 - 27.936 BC
= =
= =
C
2
X
V
Q=
Power Factor Correction
26
Solution:


V 230 400V
3
1
V , connection star For the = =
F 240
13.26 50 2
1
C
13.26
kVAr 3.989
V) (230
X
2
C

t
=

=
O = =
400V V , connection delta For the =
F 79.4
40.1 50 2
1
C
40.1
kVAr 3.989
V) (400
X
2
C

t
=

=
O = =
Harmonics in Power Systems
27
Definitions:

IEEE Standard 100,1984
a sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or
quantity having a frequency that is an integral
multiple of the fundamental frequency

French mathematician, Jean Baptiste Fourier
a periodic nonsinusoidal function of a fundamental
frequency f may be expressed as the sum of
sinusoidal functions of frequencies which are
multiples of the fundamental frequency
Harmonics in Power Systems
28
Types of harmonics in power systems:
Voltage
Current
Harmonics Classifications
Subharmonics (f
h
< f)
Integer/ Characteristics harmonics (f
h
= nf)
Non-integer/ Non-characteristics harmonics (f
h
> f and
f
h
nf)
where,
f = fundamental frequency
f
h
= harmonic frequency
n = integer = 1,2,3,
Harmonics in Power Systems
29
Sinusoidal voltage/current function:


) sin( ) (
) sin( ) (
u e
e
=
=
t I t i
t V t v ) sin( ) ( t V t v e =
) sin( ) ( u e = t I t i
V
I
u
T
f t
e
2
locity Angular ve
=
=
e t/ 2
Period
=
= T
Harmonics in Power Systems
30
The presence of harmonic components in the
normal sinusoidal waveform produced a periodic
nonsinusoidal waveform :

... ) ) 1 sin((
) sin( ... ) 3 sin( ) 2 ( ) sin( ) (
1
3 2 1 0
+ +
+ + + + + + =
+
t n V
t n V t V t V t V V t v
n
n
e
e e e e
Fourier Series
Harmonics in Power Systems
31
Harmonics in Power Systems
32
The Fourier series is simplified to express the
periodic voltage waveform with fundamental
frequency, e = 2t f,
) to 1 k (for ) sin cos ( ) (
0
= + + =

t k b t k a V t v
k k
e e
) , , 3 , 2 , 1 ( , cos ) (
1
n k dt kt t f a
k
= =
}
+

t
t
t
) , , 3 , 2 , 1 ( , sin ) (
1
n k dt kt t f b
k
= =
}
+

t
t
t
where a
k
and b
k
are the coefficient of the
individual harmonic components,
Harmonics in Power Systems
33
Harmonics measurement indices:
Individual Harmonic Distortion (IHD)
Ratio between the root mean square (RMS) value of
the individual harmonic and the RMS value of the
fundamental.
IHD
n
= (I
n
/I
1
) x 100%

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Ratio between the RMS value of the harmonics and
the RMS value of the fundamental.
) ,... 4 , 3 , 2 ( %, 100
1
2
= =

n
I
I
THD
n
Harmonics Sources in Electrical
Systems
34
Many nonlinear loads drawing nonsinusoidal
currents from electrical power systems.
These nonsinusoidal currents pass through
different impedances in the power systems
and produce voltage harmonics.
These voltage harmonics propagate in power
systems and affect all of the power system
components.
Fluorescent Lighting
35
The amount of harmonics no. 3, 5, 7, and 9
are high.

Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD)
36
ASDs are widely used to control the speed of
AC motor nowadays, compared to the
application of belts and pulleys in the 1970s.

ASD input current and its IHD with motor operating at 45 Hz
Personal Computers
37
Odd orders
harmonics!
Switching
power supply
TV, Air Con.,
Laser printers
Electric Furnace
38
High-power and high harmonic distortion devices in
power systems. Producing non-integer current
harmonics during melting process. High 5
th
and 7
th

harmonics also produced.
AC/DC Converters
39
If the number of converter/inverter pulses is p,
then the order of harmonic current in AC side
will be np1 (n = 1, 2, 3).
Effects of Harmonics
40
Disturbance to Electric and Electronic Devices
Higher Losses
Extra Neutral Current
Improper Working of Metering Devices
Resonance Problem

** Note: Please read the provided note,
Harmonics for the sub-title, Effect of
Harmonics on Power System Devices.
Effects of Harmonics
41
Disturbance to Electric and Electronic Devices
Harmonics cause disturbance in sensitive loads in power
systems such as sensitive medical devices, control
circuits, and computers.
Control circuits that work on current or voltage zero
crossing have higher sensitivity to harmonics and may
not work properly in the presence of harmonics.

Effects of Harmonics
42
Higher Losses
P
loss
= RI
2
With the presence of harmonics, P
loss-h
= R(I
h
)
2
Excessive losses and torque fluctuation also appear
in electric motors in the presence of harmonics
because only the fundamental component yields
average torque in motors and harmonics yield core
losses and torque fluctuation.
Effects of Harmonics
43
Extra Neutral Current
The presence of current harmonics especially 3
rd

harmonic in electrical power systems increases
neutral currents.
Higher neutral currents, in four-wire, three-phase
systems, in addition to the increasing size of the
neutral wire, can cause overloaded power feeders,
overloaded transformers, voltage distortion, and
common mode noise. Typical PC power supply:
Effects of Harmonics
44
Improper Working of Metering Devices
The presence of current and voltage harmonics of
more than 5% may lead to improper working of
conventional metering devices that utilize induction
watt-hour meters
Effects of Harmonics
45
Resonance Problem
Current and voltage harmonics, when passing
through the power system or another load, may
cause a resonance problem.
Figure below shows a kind of resonance where the
load has a resonance frequency close to the fifth
harmonic.
Voltage Sags Example
46
Voltage Sags Example
47
Voltage Sags Example
48
Voltage Sags Definitions
49
Magnitude (of nominal voltage)
Sag : 0.1 pu to 0.9 pu
Interruption : < 0.1 pu

Duration
Instantaneous : 0.5 cycles - 30 cycles
Momentary : 30 cycles - 3 seconds
Temporary : 3 seconds - 1 minute
Voltage Sags Sources
50
Any sudden increase in load, if large enough, will
cause a voltage sag:

Motors
Faults
Switching
Voltage Sags Sources
51
Motors typically draw six to eight times their
running current when they are starting.
Motors may start and stop frequently.
Common cause of voltage sags in industrial
facilities the facilitys own large motors can
cause the voltage sag.
Voltage Sags Motor Example
52
Voltage Sags Example
53
Example 3

A stiff 14.4kV three-phase system serves a
distribution line with an impedance of 1.2+j6
ohms. If the voltage at the sending end remains
14.4kV, what is the voltage drop in the line due to
a balanced 3-phase load of 10+j5 ohms per
phase?
Voltage Sags Example
54
Solution:

Given variables:
Z
load
= (10+j5)O, Z
line
=(1.2+j6)O, V
|
=14.4kV/\3

Line current:


A
Z Z
V
I
line load
line
Z =
+
= 48 . 44 598 . 529
|
Voltage Sags Example
55
Use the line current to find the voltage drop
and load voltage:




Voltage sag (%),

kV Z I V
line line drop
Z = = 21 . 34 241 . 3
kV V V V
drop load
Z = = 92 . 17 921 . 5
|
% 22 . 71
% 100 1
=

(
(


=
|
|
V
V V
Sag
load
magnitude
Typical voltage sag tolerance IEEE
1346
56
Equipment Upper Range Average Lower Range
PLC 20ms, 75% 260ms, 60% 620ms, 45%
PLC, I/O card 20ms, 80% 40ms, 55% 40ms, 30%
5HP AC drive 30ms, 80% 50ms, 75% 80ms, 60%
AC control relay 10ms, 75% 20ms, 65% 30ms, 60%
Motor starter 20ms, 60% 50ms, 50% 80ms, 40%
PC 30ms, 80% 20ms, 60% 70ms, 50%
Transients
57
Transients Types
58
Impulsive
Nanosecond
5ns rise, lasts <50ns
Microsecond
1s rise, lasts 50ns 1ms
Millisecond
0.1ms rise, lasts >1ms

Caused by lightning, removal of an inductive load,
loose wiring, and other arcing events.
Transients Types
59
Oscillatory
Low frequency: <5kHz, 0.3 50ms, 0 4 pu
Capacitor switching, ferroresonance, transformer
energisation
Medium frequency: 5500 kHz, 20s, 0 8 pu
Back-to-back capacitor switching, cable switching,
impulse response
High frequency: 0.5 5 MHz, 5 s, 0 4 pu
Response of system to an impulsive transient
Transients Impact on Loads
60
Hard disk crash
Power supply failure
Component failure
SCR failure
Circuit board failures
Process interruptions
Letting the smoke out
Transients Sources
61
Distribution System
Lightning
Switching Operations (Breakers, Capacitors,)
Fault Clearing/Breaker Operations

Customer System
Lightning
Arcing Devices
Starting & Stopping Motors
Breaker Operations
Capacitor Switching
Transients Lightning
62
High Frequency!
Transients Faults
63
Low Frequency!
Transients Motor Starting
64
High Frequency!
Transients Cap. Bank
Switching
65
Low Frequency!
Standards for Power Quality
66
PQ
Standards
IEEE IEC
Institute of Electrical
and Electronic Engineers
International
Electrotechnical Commission
67
IEEE 1159-1995
Standard
IEC Standard
68