influence origin outcome Cause connection consequence reason relationship effect factor Result impact .

To contribute To result from To play a part in To attribute to To bring about To cause To result in To affect To create To lead to To blame To be associated with To be responsible for .

As a result of +cause Because of + Cause Due to +cause On account of +cause Thanks to +cause .

As + cause So +cause Because + cause If + cause Since + cause So + cause… that + effect .

As a result + effect Consequently + effect For this reason + effect Hence + effect Therefore + effect Thus + effect .

As a result + effect Consequently + effect For this reason + effect Hence + effect Therefore + effect Thus + effect .

including alcohol. the baseball game has been canceled. (3) underline each effect and mark it with an “E”. The prices of new cars are forcing many people to keep their old cars longer than they used to. (2) highlight each cause and mark it with a “C. .• • • • • • • In the following sentences. our plan was three hours late taking off. do the following three steps: (1) circle the Cause and Effect Markers. Because of a severe storm in the area. and mechanical failure. A great deal of pollution is caused by power plants that produce electricity by burning coal. The police have identified a number of factors that contribute to traffic accidents. On account of the bad weather. speeding.

a large factory closed down. This result in fifteen hundred people losing their jobs. • Two months ago. • In the late twentieth century. Their crops are not growing well.• A lack of rain is creating problems for farmers. This was partly due to a change in society’s attitude toward women. • Some human diseases have been associated with chemicals in the environment.S. • In the 1990s. world oil prices fell and stayed low. . there was an enormous increase in the percentage of female students in U. medical schools and law schools. This brought about an improvement in the economies of countries that import oil.

• In 1940. AIDS – are often associated with people’s behavior. • Most experts agree that a number of ______________ played a part in the sinking of the Titanic in 1912. the figure had risen to over 50 percent. By 1980.Attribute blamed bring about contributed to factors lead to link consequences responsible for thanks to • Immediately after the Titanic sank. newspapers ______________ the ship’s owners for the disaster. Therefore. a basic question for preventive medicine is this: How can we ______________ changes in behavior? . only 15 percent of married women in the United States had jobs outside the home. To what can we ______________ this major change in women’s lives? • Some diseases – for example.

• Actions can have ______________ we don’t intend. Both sides hope that the discussions will • ______________ a satisfactory agreement. • ______________ advances in medical science. but then the pesticide entered the food chain and killed birds and animals. • Research has shown the ______________ between smoking and increased risk of heart disease. diseases that used to kill millions of children a year are no longer a danger in many countries. . • Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have ______________ the falling death rate from cardiovascular disease. we used DDT to kill harmful insects.• Research has shown that alcohol is ______________ a large number of traffic death. For example. • The talks between the employees and the company are continuing.

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