PHYSICAL

ELECTRONICS
ECX 5239
PRESENTATION 01

Name : A.T.U.N Senevirathna.
Reg, No : 20661910
Center : Kandy
Introduction
What is a semiconductor ?

Introduction about Current density, Resistivity, Conductivity,
Drift velocity, Mobility.

How to solve my problems according to above equations.

What Is a Semiconductor?

•Many materials, such as most metals, allow electrical current to
flow through them
•These are known as conductors
•Materials that do not allow electrical current to flow through
them are called insulators
•A material whose properties are such that it is not quite a
conductor, not quite an insulator
•That material called as semiconductor.

Semiconductors
• Some common semiconductors

Si - Silicon (most common)
Ge – Germanium
Silicon is the best and most widely used semiconductor.

The main characteristic of a
semiconductor element is that
it has four electrons in its
outer or valence orbit.
Doping

 To make the semiconductor conduct electricity, other
atoms called impurities must be added.

 “Impurities” are different elements.

 This process is called doping.

 Some impurities are As, P, B

Doping with Boron

 Boron has 3 electrons are in its
outer shell.
 We remove a silicon atom from the
crystal lattice.
 Then we replace it with a boron
atom.
 Notice we have a hole in a bond –
this hole is thus free for conduction

 This type of silicon is called p-type

p-type
will be
shown
like
this.
Semiconductors can be Conductors
 An impurity, or element like
arsenic, has 5 valence
electrons.
 we remove a silicon atom
from the crystal lattice and
replace it with a arsenic
atom.
 We now have an electron
that is not bonded – it is
thus free for conduction.

 This type of silicon is
called n-type .

n-type
will be
shown
like this.
Carrier Drift
 When apply an electric field to
semiconductor , charged particles
move according to electric field.
This process is called drift.
 Charged particles move with an
average velocity. This velocity
proportional to the electric field.
 The proportionality constant is the
carrier mobility.

Hole velocity

Electron velocity
Notation:
µ
p
÷ hole mobility (cm
2
/V·s)
µ
n
÷ electron mobility (cm
2
/V·s)
Hole velocity

Electron velocity
 Drift current is proportional to the
carrier velocity and carrier
concentration:

Drift Current
(current density) J = =

Drift Current Equations
Electrical Resistance
1
2
Using 1,2 we can get eq. 3
3
Problems
Question No 08 :
A current density of 10 A/ m
2
flows through an n-type
germanium which has resistivity 0.05 ohm-m. Calculate the
time taken for electrons in the material to travel 50 μm.

According to question we can get
Current density = 10 A/ m
2
Resistivity = 0.05 ohm-m
Distance = 50 μm
Charge of electron = 1 .6 x 10
-19
c
Electron mobility = 0.39 m
2
/ vs because n –type germanium.

Where is Drift velocity

J
e
µ
e
µ
nev J =
v
1
D
e
n
e
µ
o
=
2

Density of electrons

20
05 . 0
1 1
= = =
µ
o
3
Conductivity
Using 2,3 we can get eq. 4
20
20
10 2051 . 3
10 24 . 6
20
× =
×
= =
÷
e
n
e
µ
o
4
Using 1,4 we can get eq. 5
5 . 19
10 6 . 1 10 2051 . 3
10
19 20
3
=
× × ×
=
÷
v
5
v
D
Time =
6
Using 5,6 can get,
s s
ms
m
Time µ 5 . 2 10 5641 . 2
5 . 19
10 50
6
1
6
= × =
×
=
÷
÷
÷
Question No 09 :
Intrinsic silicon has a resistivity of 2000 ohm-m at R.T. and the density of
conduction electrons is 1 .4 x 10
16
calculate resistivity's of samples
containing acceptor concentrations of 10
21
and 10
23
m
-3
Assume that μ
h
remains as for intrinsic silicon and that μ
h
= 0.25 μ
e
.
According to question we can get
Density of electrons
3 16
10 4 . 1
÷
× = m n
Resistivity 2000 = µ
4
10 5
2000
1 1
÷
× = = =
µ
o
Conductivity of Intrinsic silicon
Charge of electron
c e
19
10 6 . 1
÷
× =
Using above data we can get ,
Electron mobility
2232 . 0
10 6 . 1 10 4 . 1
10 5
19 16
4
=
× × ×
×
= =
÷
÷
ne
e
o
µ
4
3
Hole mobility of intrinsic
e h
µ µ 25 . 0 =
B
Using 4,B we can get 0558 . 0 2232 . 0 25 . 0 = × =
h
µ
5
Now we can get eq. for conductivity of
sample
( )
h e
p n e µ µ o + =
1
We use another eq. for number of electrons
and number of holes
a d
N N n ÷ =
d a
N N p ÷ =
Where N
a
is acceptor concentration and

N
d
Is donor atom concentration/impurity concentration
Let
21
10 =
a
N
And assume this is p-type semiconductor
Hence
21
10 = =
a
N p
2
Because room temperature
2,3,4,5,6 apply to 1 we can get | | 0558 . 0 10 2232 . 0 10 4 . 1 10 6 . 1
21 16 19
× + × × × =
÷
o
9284 . 8 = o
Hence resistivity of sample (ρ) = 1/ 8.9284= 0.112 ohm.m
Similarly , when
23
10 =
a
N
We can get (ρ) = 0.00112 ohm.m
Question No 10 :
A rod of p-type germanium 6mm long , 1mm wide and 0.5mm thick has and
electrical resistance of 120 ohm. What is the impurity concentration ? Assume
μ
e
= 0.39, μ
h
= 0.19 m
2
/v.s and n
i
= 2.5× 10
19
m
-3
what proportion of the
conductivity is due to electrons in the conduction band ?
According to question we can get , μ
e
= 0.39, μ
h
= 0.19 m
2
/v.s, n
i
= 2.5× 10
19
m
-3

Length of rod (L) = 6mm, Resistance of rod (R) =120Ω, Area of rod (A) =
0.5 m
2
Then we can get conductivity of rod
( )
100
10 5 . 0 120
10 6
6
3
=
× ×
×
= =
÷
÷
RA
L
o
1
Let
a
N p =
a
i
N
n
n
2
=
As p-type germanium
2
h e
ep en µ µ o + =
3
Using 1,2,3 we can get
h a e
a
i
eN
N
n
e µ µ o +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
4
Solving eq. 4 Using previous data we can get
21
10 289 . 3 × =
a
N
or
17
10 9 . 3 × =
a
N
Solving eq. 2 we can get

17
10 9 . 1 × = n Hence let
21
10 289 . 3 × =
a
N
Because p>n as p-type
Finally we can get impurity concentration
3 21 21 17
10 29 . 3 10 28 . 3 10 97 . 1
÷
× = × + × = + = m N n N
a d
Reference
 Course material of physical electronics.

END
 Electronic materials and Devices.
(By S.O.Kasap)
 Internet resources.
 Electronic materials and Devices.
John Allis0n

. Mobility. Conductivity. Resistivity. Drift velocity.Introduction What is a semiconductor ? Introduction about Current density. How to solve my problems according to above equations.

What Is a Semiconductor? •Many materials. not quite an insulator •That material called as semiconductor. . allow electrical current to flow through them •These are known as conductors •Materials that do not allow electrical current to flow through them are called insulators •A material whose properties are such that it is not quite a conductor. such as most metals.

Semiconductors • Some common semiconductors  Si . The main characteristic of a semiconductor element is that it has four electrons in its outer or valence orbit.Silicon (most common)  Ge – Germanium Silicon is the best and most widely used semiconductor. .

Some impurities are As. B . P.    This process is called doping. “Impurities” are different elements. other atoms called impurities must be added.Doping  To make the semiconductor conduct electricity.

Notice we have a hole in a bond – this hole is thus free for conduction p-type will be  This type of silicon is called p-type shown like this. We remove a silicon atom from the crystal lattice. Then we replace it with a boron atom.Doping with Boron     Boron has 3 electrons are in its outer shell. .

  we remove a silicon atom from the crystal lattice and replace it with a arsenic atom.  . or element like arsenic. We now have an electron that is not bonded – it is thus free for conduction. n-type will be shown like this. has 5 valence electrons. This type of silicon is called n-type .Semiconductors can be Conductors  An impurity.

charged particles move according to electric field. Hole velocity Electron velocity   Hole velocity Electron velocity Notation: mp  hole mobility (cm2/V·s) mn  electron mobility (cm2/V·s) . This process is called drift. The proportionality constant is the carrier mobility. This velocity proportional to the electric field.Carrier Drift  When apply an electric field to semiconductor . Charged particles move with an average velocity.

Drift Current  Drift current is proportional to the carrier velocity and carrier concentration: (current density) J= = .

Drift Current Equations .

3 3 .2 we can get eq.Electrical Resistance 2 1 Using 1.

Calculate the time taken for electrons in the material to travel 50 μm. According to question we can get Current density J = 10 A/ m2 = = = = 0.39 m2 / vs  Resistivity Distance D Charge of electron e Electron mobility m e because n –type germanium.05 ohm-m 50 μm 1 . Where v is Drift velocity J  nev 1 .Problems Question No 08 : A current density of 10 A/ m2 flows through an n-type germanium which has resistivity 0.05 ohm-m.6 x 10-19 c 0.

6 can get.3 we can get eq. 4 n  20   3.2051  10 20  1.2051  10 20 mee 6.6  10 19 5 Time  D v 6 Using 5.4 we can get eq.5641  10  6 s  2.5 3.5ms 1 .5ms 19 . 50  10 6 m Time   2.Density of electrons n  Conductivity   1   mee 2 3  1  20 0.05 Using 2.24  10  20 4 Using 1. 5 10 3 v  19 .

and the density of conduction electrons is 1 .4  10 16  1.4 1016 m 3 Resistivity   2000 Conductivity of Intrinsic silicon   1 3   1  5  10  4 2000 Charge of electron e  1. Electron mobility m e 5  10 4    0.2232 ne 1.6  10 19  4 . According to question we can get Density of electrons n  1.Question No 09 : Intrinsic silicon has a resistivity of 2000 ohm-m at R.4 x 1016 calculate resistivity's of samples containing acceptor concentrations of 1021 and 1023 m -3 Assume that μh remains as for intrinsic silicon and that μh = 0.25 μe .6 1019 c Using above data we can get .T.

0558 Now we can get eq. for and number of electrons number of holes Where Na is acceptor concentration and Nd Is donor atom concentration/impurity concentration Let Hence N a  10 21 And assume this is p-type semiconductor p  N a  10 21 2 Because room temperature 2.25 m e B 5 Using 4.2232  0.0558   .2232  10 21  0.Hole mobility of intrinsic m h  0.B we can get m h  0. for conductivity of sample   enm e  pm h  n  Nd  Na p  Na  Nd 1 We use another eq.25  0.5.3.6 apply to 1 we can get   1.6 10 19 1.4 1016  0.4.

5mm thick has and electrical resistance of 120 ohm. ni = 2. μh = 0.s and ni = 2.00112 ohm.19 m2 /v.9284 Similarly . 1mm wide and 0.  8.39.m N a  10 23 Question No 10 : A rod of p-type germanium 6mm long . μe= 0. when Hence resistivity of sample (ρ) = 1/ 8. Resistance of rod (R) =120Ω.5× 1019 m -3 what proportion of the conductivity is due to electrons in the conduction band ? According to question we can get .m We can get (ρ) = 0.9284= 0.19 m2 /v.5 m2 Then we can get conductivity of rod L 6  10 3     100 RA 120  0. Area of rod (A) = 0.5  10  6   1 Let p  N a ni2 n Na 2 As p-type germanium   enme  epm h 3 . μh = 0.39.s. What is the impurity concentration ? Assume μe= 0.112 ohm.5× 1019 m -3 Length of rod (L) = 6mm.

4 Using previous data we can get N a  3. 2 we can get Because p>n as p-type n  1.29  10 21 m 3 .289  10 N a  3.3 we can get   e ni  m  eN m  a h N  e   a 4 or 21 Solving eq.9 1017 21 Hence let N a  3.97  10 17  3.289  10 Finally we can get impurity concentration N d  n  N a  1.28  10 21  3.2 Using 1.9  10 17 Solving eq.2.

(By S. END .Kasap) Electronic materials and Devices.Reference  Course material of physical electronics.O.    Electronic materials and Devices. John Allis0n Internet resources.