• Open Systems Interconnection • developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) • has seven layers • is a theoretical system delivered too late! • TCP/IP is the de facto standard

OSI Layers


)) what needs to be sent across the medium The bottom layer of the OSI model The physical layer is responsible for movements of individual bits from one hop (node) to the next.) This layer tells the driver software for the MAU (media attachment unit. network interface cards (NICs. etc. etc. ex. . twisted pair.LAYER 1 – The PHYSICAL Layer • Converts bits into electronic signals for outgoing messages • • • • • Converts electronic signals into bits for incoming messages This layer manages the interface between the the computer and the network medium (coax. modems.



Physical Layer .

LAYER 2 – The DATA LINK Layer • • Handles special data frames (packets) between the Network layer and the Physical layer At the receiving end. this layer packages raw data from the physical layer into data frames for delivery to the Network layer At the sending end this layer handles conversion of data into raw formats that can be handled by the Physical Layer The data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop (node) to the next. • .

Data Link Layer .

Data Link Layer: Hop-to-hop delivery .

.LAYER 3 – The NETWORK Layer • • • • Handles addressing messages for delivery. as well as translating logical network addresses and names into their physical counterparts Responsible for deciding how to route transmissions between computers This layer also handles the decisions needed to get data from one point to the next point along a network path This layer also handles packet switching and network congestion control The network layer is responsible for the delivery of individual packets from the source host to the destination host.

Network Layer .

Network Layer : Source-to-destination delivery .

LAYER 4 – The TRANSPORT Layer • • Manages the transmission of data across a network Manages the flow of data between parties by segmenting long data streams into smaller data chunks (based on allowed “packet” size for a given transmission medium) Reassembles chunks into their original sequence at the receiving end Provides acknowledgements of successful transmissions and requests resends for packets which arrive with errors The transport layer is responsible for the delivery of a message from one process to another • • .

Transport Layer .

Reliable process-to-process delivery of a message .

LAYER 5 – The SESSION Layer • • • • • • Enables two networked resources to hold ongoing communications (called a session) across a network Applications on either end of the session are able to exchange data for the duration of the session This layer is: Responsible for initiating. maintaining and terminating sessions Responsible for security and access control to session information (via session participant identification) Responsible for synchronization services. and for checkpoint services The session layer is responsible for dialog control and synchronization .

Session layer .

it converts data into a generic format for network transmission.LAYER 6 – The PRESENTATION Layer • • Manages data-format information for networked communications (the network’s translator) For outgoing messages. or data compression/decompression A special software facility called a “redirector” operates at this layer to determine if a request is network related on not and forward network-related requests to an appropriate network resource The presentation layer is responsible for translation. for incoming messages. compression. it converts data from the generic network format to a format that the receiving application can understand • • This layer is also responsible for certain protocol conversions. data encryption/decryption. and encryption .

Presentation layer .

LAYER 7 – The APPLICATION Layer • The top layer of the OSI model • Provides a set of interfaces for sending and receiving applications to gain access to and use network services. message handling and database query processing The application layer is responsible for providing services to the user . such as: networked file transfer.

Application layer .

Standardized Protocol Architectures .

FDDI. TCP. TELNET. AFP. NetBEUI DATA LINK – layer 2 Bridges and switches. network adapters.layer 7 SNMP. Ethernet incorporates both this layer and the Physical layer Hubs. NWlink. NCP. AppleTalk PRESENTATION – layer 6 NCP. SPX. repeaters. HTTP. Parallel SCSI buses. TDI SESSION – layer 5 NetBIOS TRANSPORT – layer 4 NetBEUI. layer 3 (or IP) switches IP. SMTP. Various physical-layer Ethernet incorporates both this layer and the data-link layer. Token ring. and IEEE 802. FTP. SMB.OSI Layers Devices Protocols APPLICATION . IPX.11 PHYSICAL – layer 1 . NWlink NETWORK – layer 3 Routers.

Layer Specific Standards .

Service Primitives and Parameters • define services between adjacent layers using: • primitives to specify function performed • parameters to pass data and control info .

or notify the service user of a provider-initiated action A primitive issued by a service user to acknowledge or complete some procedure previously invoked by an indication to that user A primitive issued by a service provider to acknowledge or complete some procedure previously invoked by a request by the service user RESPONSE CONFIRM .Primitive Types REQUEST A primitive issued by a service user to invoke some service and to pass the parameters needed to specify fully the requested service INDICATION A primitive issued by a service provider either to: indicate that a procedure has been invoked by the peer service user on the connection and to provide the associated parameters.

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