Fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection measure, consisting of a water supply, providing adequate pressure and flow rate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fire sprinklers are connected. Although historically only used in factories and large commercial buildings, home and small building systems are now available at a relatively cost-effective price.

Pratt of Abington. The first automatic sprinkler system was patented by Philip W. MA.FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM HISTORY: From 1852 to 1885. they were not automatic systems. in 1872. they did not turn on by themselves. perforated pipe systems were used in textile mills throughout New England as a means of fire protection.  Inventors first began experimenting with automatic sprinklers around 1860. However.  .

. and are required by building codes to be placed in hospitals. sprinklers were installed almost exclusively for the protection of commercial buildings. fire sprinklers have become mandatory safety equipment.FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM HISTORY:  Henry S.  Until the 1940s. schools. Parmalee of New Haven. Over the years. hotels and other public buildings. Connecticut is considered the inventor of the first automatic sprinkler head.

the automatic sprinklers prevent the water from being discharged.FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM TYPES:  Wet pipe systems: An automatic water supply provides water under pressure to the system piping. causing one or more sprinklers to fuse (open). . Until sufficient heat is applied. All of the piping is filled with water.



the design of the dry pipe valve (a specialized type of check valve) intentionally includes a larger valve clapper area exposed to the maintenance air pressure. at a "maintenance" pressure which is relatively low compared with the water supply pressure. . as compared to the water pressure. To prevent the larger water supply pressure from forcing water into the piping.FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM TYPES:  Dry pipe systems: Water is not present in the piping until the system operates. The piping is pressurized with air.

e. To prevent the water supply pressure from forcing water into the piping. which is a mechanically latched valve. and stays open once tripped. the piping is at ambient air pressure. i. Water is not present in the piping until the system operates. so that all sprinklers connected to the water piping system are open.FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM TYPES:  Deluge System: "Deluge" systems are systems that have open sprinklers. a deluge valve is used in the water supply connection. It is a non-resetting valve. the heat sensing operating element is removed during installation. Because the sprinkler orifices are open. .

 .FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM SPRINKLER HEADS A sprinkler head will spray water into the room if sufficient heat reaches the bulb and causes it to shatter. Sprinkler heads operate individually.  Each closed-head sprinkler is held closed by a heat-sensitive device called a fusible link. Note the red liquid in the glass bulb. The link applies pressure to a seal which prevents water from flowing until the ambient temperature around the sprinkler reaches the design temperature of the individual sprinkler head.



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