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This design report consist of Introduction objective literature review Analysis hot water demand analysis solar thermal

al system components design cost estimation Conclusion Conclusion Recommendation

Introduction Objective
providing hot water for IOT students cafeteria by using solar thermal water heater system . With the following subordinate objectives To provide hot water for students cafeteria by using environmentally friendly power source (solar power) To replace the higher cost requiring powers by lower cost requiring sources (electric and fuel powers) by solar power To produce hot water with minimum running cost

Introduction about solar water system

system that uses the thermal energy of the sun to heat water They are usually aimed at heating water to a temperature hot enough for washing clothes, washing dishes, and personal hygiene as long as it is clean used in cooking to save time and fuel

working principle of solar heaters

Their working principle is governed by basic heat transfer modes Radiation Convection Conduction

Literature Review
The history of the solar hot water heater extends back over to 2500 years. Solar heating was so popular in the Roman empire. In Geneva, story of solar water heating began in the 1760s by Horace-Benedict de Saussure, when he observed that it is always hotter when sun rays pass through a glass-covered structure than into a site unprotected by such material. In 1891, Clarence Kemp, an American plumbing and heating manufacturer, placed a black-painted water tank inside a glasscovered box with a similar design to de Saussures. This was enough to hot water for bathing or dishwashing and was the first commercial solar water heater. Kemp called it the Climax.

In 1909, William J. Bailey found a way out of the dilemma:

separating the solar heating of the water from its storage By World War II, solar water heaters dominated the rooftops of Miami (Florida) and its surroundings. Solar water heater relocated farther east to Israel at the end of World War II. The new Jewish state had so little electricity that it prohibited its daytime use for household water heating a rule enforced by energy police due to the fact that Israelis lack energy sources like fossil fuel On sunny Barbados (west India), islanders saw their water heating bills rise after the two oil shocks of the 1970s . Prime Minister Tom Adams locally manufactured solar water heaters .

Experts project that by 2010 the number of solar water heaters installed in China will equal the thermal equivalent of electrical capacity of 40 large nuclear power plants Solar water heaters appear to be economically feasible in Ethiopia due to the escalation of the price of petroleum and electricity in the last 2 to 3 decades Studies undertaken by Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Technology, indicate that with the current electricity tariffs, the investment cost of a solar water heater can be paid back within six months

Hot water demand analysis

Hot water is required in students cafeteria for the following main purposes; Washing or cleaning purpose To produce steam using boiler For making tea to use solar heated water for the three purposes optimum temperature hot water is to be produced it is assumed optimum temperature for these cases at the value of 80 degree Celsius


At morning time hot water requirement is 4680 L

Cup Dishes Plate At the lunch time =6282L Nickel Plate Fork Dishes At the dinner time =6202L Nickel Dishes Plate

The total hot water demand at 35 degree Celsius is

= hot water at Morning+ hot water At the lunch +

at dinner time

hot water

= 4680L+6282L+6202L

Making tea
One cup of tea is taken as 1/4 litre. Therefore the total amount of water required for tea making is V=n* volume of cup =4000*1/4 =1000 L

Boiler water feed

it used in order to produce steam which is used to produce heat for cooking amount of dishes used for cooking purpose is 130 dishes per day and assuming water will boil up to 100 degree Celsius. The amount of water used for boiler feed water is estimated as follows

The hot water supply for boiler is 5000 L

Total hot water demand

=washing + tea + water for boiler =7509+1000+5000 =13509 L Note by; considering uncertainty we have taken the hot water demand as 1400 L The required heat demand

Why to use solar thermal water heater ?

In the students cafeteria: o For cooking purpose boiler with fuel oil o For washing purpose electric heater o For making tea electric heater
By using solar energy heat power is to be produced in seven hours, so the total amount of energy will be = 139.4*3600*7 =3,512,880 KJ If it is supplied by electric power, it will be = 3512880/3600 = 975.8 KWh Therefore the total energy cost =0.70 birr/KWh*975.8KWh =683.06 birr

If this energy is to be supplied by fuel oil the amount of fuel used is amount of fuel = heat power required / calorific value =3512880 KJ/(664.083*43932) =120.4 L The price of 1 L naphtha is 17.80 birr therefore the total cost =120.4 *17.8 =2143.30 birr When solar thermal water heater is used such cost can be avoided with only initial cost investment for installing solar thermal water heater

Design of solar thermal water heater Selection of proper type of solar thermal water heater
Solar thermal water heater







Passive System

does not use a pump and instead relies on convection to move

water through the system Less expensive to install Quicker payback time Provides hot water during a power outage not usually as efficient as active systems, not reduce water heating costs as much as active systems are limited to lower hot water demands below 3000 litres per a day

There are 2 types of passive solar systems Integral collector /Solar Batch Heaters collector and storage tank are combined into one unit Whenever theres a call for hot water, water pressure from the home moves hot water from the top of the solar batch heater as cold water is pushed into the bottom Thermosyphon Systems tank must be located directly above the collector work on the principal of heat rising Active systems

uses an electric pump to circulate the heat-transfer fluid

can produce more amount of water Installation at higher altitude is easier reduces thermal losses from storage since it is placed indoor

two types of active water heating systems Direct Solar Water Heating

The system consists of collector pipes filled with water that

are linked to an insulated storage tank usually located inside a home Although direct systems are more efficient that indirect ones, they require more maintenance to keep the pipes clear of mineral deposits Indirect Solar Water Heating do not heat the water directly rather they use fluid with a lowfreezing point to absorb radiant energy from the sun advantages over direct system Maintenances of heat exchanger are less frequent do not produce corrosion to circulating pipe

Basic components of solar thermal water heater Solar collectors Heat exchanger Thermal storage Circulating pump System controls/controller Circulating pipe

Design of heat exchanger

shell and tube heat exchanger is selected due to its availability in the market




Fig . temperature profile of heat exchanger

Length of tubes

Log mean temperature difference

= 22.45 degree Celsius Overall heat transfer coefficient

From table, F=0.93

then length of the tube using N=15, D=0.025 m =33.86 m The number of pass is taken as 12. length of heat exchanger is 33.86/12=2.82

Pipe and storage losses

length of the pipe from outlet of collector up to the heat exchanger inlet is assumed as 10 m temperature of water as it reaches the heat exchanger is 100 degree Celsius stainless steel pipe is selected The insulation used is glass wool heat loss from the pipe is =166.46 KW

Then the temperature at the outlet of the collector is =100.07

The heat loss from pipe which goes from heat exchanger to collector is 47.47 W The temperature is 44.9 degree Celsius two storage tanks of 7000 L are used heat loss from one storage tank is 480 W actual temperature in the storage tank is 79.79

Solar collector design

Solar collectors collect energy from the sun. Solar thermal collectors capture and retain heat from the sun and transfer this heat to a liquid, circulating fluid For medium temperature requirement flat plate collectors are suitable have the following advantages over concentrating collectors Have higher performance as both diffused and beam radiation can be harvested for heat production Simper in design and manufacturing Easier to install Lower cost

Collector can be Unglazed - low-temperature systems usually operate at low temperature, up to 10C above ambient temperature Double glazed solar collector performance is better at optimum medium temperature For pumped active system header and riser arrangement has better performance As the operating temperature of this case is at 100 degree Celsius, hence double glazed solar collector with header and riser is used

Selection of proper inclination

Maximum solar power is obtained when solar radiation is perpendicular to striking surface 20 degree

Solar collector area calculation

overall heat loss from top and bottom of collector is

The effective absorptance of cover-absorber assembly is = 0.681

Solar radiation incident on the absorber

Top heat loss

Solar energy absorbed by collector

Size of collector

From standards 5 sq.m collector is chosen. Then number of modules 45 These collectors will be arranged in series-parallel flow

Selection of pump
from analysis Working fluid circulating pump Discharge= 0.543 L/s Total head: H =8 m Cold water heat exchanger feeding pump Discharge= 0.566 L/s Total head: H =3 m

Control of solar system

Control of solar thermal water heating system controls the flow of heating fluids and water, based on temperature differential measurement at the collector and storage tank Solar system control mechanism provides three important features: Maximize overall system efficiency Increase reliability Minimize system cost Prevent freeze Over heat protection For freeze prevention drain back system with expansion tank

Automatic drain back system

Differential controller - compares the collector temperature with storage tank temperature Sensors Safety valves Closing valves

Cost estimation of solar thermal water heater

The total cost of solar thermal water heater is the initial installation cost due to their very little maintenance and running cost The estimation of installation cost is 285,409 birr

Payback time
it is the time when the installation cost balances with electric and fuel oil consuming cost the total daily cost is electric plus oil cost 1204.51 birr per day

Payback time is calculated t* total daily cost=total installation cost =285409/1204.51 =236.95 The payback time is about eight months

Conclusion and recommendation Conclusion

hot water demand of students cafeteria requires higher cost Solar thermal water heaters can be used for providing hot water with only installation cost. Providing students cafeteria hot water demand by solar water heater saves much cost with safer running condition. For more hot water demand, larger area collectors are required especially if flat plat collectors are used Higher surrounding ambient temperature improves the efficiency of solar collector

As solar thermal heaters require larger portion of area, the installation area should be unusable area or collectors should be placed at the roof of buildings. Control systems of the system should be checked frequently to increase performance As the total hot water demand requires larger system for organizations like in this case part of the system can be installed and gradually the total system can be installed

Thank you !!!