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FUNCTION OF INGREDIENTS IN BISCUIT PRODUCTION

M.R . Sundar Senior Consultant V MARS

360 Bakery Solution Provider


Bangalore

MAJOR INGREDIENTS IN BISCUIT PRODUCTION

Ingredients used in cookie and cracker production may be classified loosely as: Flour Fat Sugars & Syrups

MINOR INGREDIENTS IN BISCUIT PRODUCTION


Water Milk & Milk Products Starches Emulsifiers Chemical leaveners

Minor Ingredients Contd.


Yeast Salt Dough conditioners Fruits and nuts Chocolate Enzymes Flavors Colors

WHEAT FLOUR

Function: basically a structure builder or binder that provides the basic framework in a biscuit Principle ingredient of biscuits is wheat flour Typically untreated soft wheat milled from red and white varieties Cookie/pastry flour protein content 7.0% to 9.5% Cracker flour protein content 9.0% to 10.5% In cracker doughs In cookie doughs The most important properties of biscuit flour Protein content/quality Gluten percentage Water absorption

WHEAT FLOUR CONTINUED

Three most common tests which serve as a guide to perform- ance characteristics of a flour Farinograph Extensograph Alveograph Bake test (probably the most meaningful) Once a good cookie formula has been developed, then any obvious variability in appearance such as too much spread, too little spread, etc. can normally be attributed to varying flour quality, assuming there has been no mistakes in weighing ingredients and baking times and temperatures are correct Options available to control the spread of a cookie with flour The most important aspect of flour is that good communica -tion between the baker and miller is a must

Functions of sugars and syrups


Browning

(except for sucrose) Sweetness and flavour Impacts biscuit spread Impacts texture of product Provides fuel for yeast Can be a source of moisture Improves shelf life Improves body of creams

Sugars and syrups


Sucrose Dextrose Maltose Invert

Syrup Brown sugar Corn syrup (glucose syrup) HFCS Honey

WATER
Not really a minor ingredient but taken for granted Function: used as a processing aid to control biscuit dough consistency and temperature as well as an ingredient that influences finished product characteristics Areas of concern - quantity, quality and changing quality Usage level varies by product (expensive ingredient in biscuit production: what you put in

MILK & MILK PRODUCTS

Function: contribute taste/flavor, nutritive attributes, and improvements of internal and external biscuit characteristics Liquid milk rarely used in production Powdered whole milk, nonfat milk, and whey most commonly used Usage level varies from 0% to 10% based on flour weight

STARCHES

Unmodified starches Function: Weakening of the flour due to its diluting effect on the gluten in the flour, may also have a tenderizing effect on the finished product Usage level 0% to 20.0% based on flour weight Modified starches Function: imparts a variety of desirable characteristics to the finished product, i.e. moisture retention, textural modification (crispness/hardness), volume, etc. Usage level 0% to 3.0% based on flour weight

What is Yeast ?

Fungus kingdom Saccharomyces cerevisiae Used in fermentation processes Bakery strains Approximately 15-20 Differ in adaptability Available in different forms Compressed (fresh) yeast Dried yeast: ADY & IDY

Yeast
Action

influenced by time, temperature, pH, and water availability Yeast is Saccharomyces Cerevisae Enzymes come from living things Yeast provides leavening in Crackers

Checks on Yeast

Temperature

Fresh yeast under 7C Dry yeast under 24C

Gassing

Activity

Depends on instrument and process Varies from supplier to supplier

Color

& pH

Poor indicators of yeast performance

Yeast Fermentation
Produces

CO2

Rapid in initial stages Levels off in about 6 hours

Affects

rheology and product appearance


Lowers dough density

Affects

texture

Provides nucleus for puff between laminations

Provides

flavor

SALT
Function:

contribute flavor and enhance other flavors Used in and on doughs In cookies: usage level varies from 0% to 1.25% based on flour weight In crackers: usage level varies from 0% to 1.50% based on flour weight On crackers: usage level varies from 0% to 3.0% based on product weight

Leavening - Defined
Leavening is defined as a raising action that aerates doughs or batters during mixing and baking so that the finished products are greater in volume than the raw ingredients, and have superior flavor and eating characteristics compared to the same ingredients baked without leavening.

Leavening Systems
Can

be achieved by

Non-traditional leavening agents


Air Steam

Leavening agents
Bio-chemical,

such as yeast Chemical, such as baking powder Gas

can be produced during mixing, following mixing, or during baking

Leavening by Air
Minor

source of leavening Provides nucleation for other leavening systems Incorporated during creaming step

Shortening: Solid, liquid, vs. oil Sugar particle size: It depends Creaming time: More is not always better Temperature of cream: Affects shortening Mixing speed: Quantity of air incorporated

Leavening by Steam
Mainly

in crackers Generated during baking Timing of steam generation: If delayed, it could lead to checking Control of oven humidity using dampers is critical

Leavening agents: Chemical Leaveners

Chemical Leaveners
Most

convenient means of obtaining desired cell structure in cookies and crackers Carbon dioxide is produced much faster by chemical reaction than by yeast fermentation. Some decompose in heat and release carbon dioxide, such as ABC Other types use acid-base chemical reactions to produce carbon dioxide, such as baking powder

ABC Leavening
In

heat, ABC decomposes into ammonia, water and carbon dioxide It has little effect on pH The ammonia smell could be a problem in products above 4% moisture As ABC is increased in a formula, biscuit diameter increases whereas its height stays the same. Thus, the spread ratio increases.

Sodium Bicarbonate Leavening


Also

referred to as Soda It is the work horse of most chemical leavening systems Has a significant impact on pH and taste Sole alkaline source that reacts with the acid in any bakery ingredient:

Difficult to achieve uniform gassing using natural acids in flour, invert sugars, molasses, etc. Desired gassing can be achieved through standard acid salts such as MCP, SALP, SAPP, etc.

Chemical Leavening Acids


Any

acid leavening agent will release carbon dioxide from soda in the presence of water Value of leavening agent depends on:
Strength of acid or neutralizing value (NV) Rate of release of carbon dioxide

NV of Leavening Acids
Neutralizing Value (NV) is the weight in pounds of baking soda required to completely neutralize 100 pounds of acid
Leavening Acid Tartaric Acid Cream of Tartar Monocalcium Phosphate Monohydrate Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate Sodium Aluminum Phosphate Sodium Aluminum Sulphate NV 116 45 80 72 100 100 Rate of Reaction Very rapid Rapid Intermediate Slow Very slow Very slow

Baking Powder
Combination

of soda, leavening acid, and filler (usually starch) Can be fast acting (containing fast reacting acid salts), slow acting (containing slow acting acid salts), or double acting (containing both)

Functions of Leavening
Grain

and texture: Tighter grain leads to harder texture Spread: Increases as leavening increases; Impacts quality, packaging Surface cracks: Controlled late release of carbon dioxide Color and Flavour: Depends on product pH

FRUITS AND NUTS


Considerable variety of flavor, appearance and texture can be achieved in biscuits by the use of fruits and nuts Raisins, coconut and a wide variety of nuts most commonly used Usage level? (expensive)

CHOCOLATE, CHOCOLATE PRODUCTS AND COCOA


Chocolate,

chocolate products and cocoa find a wide range of application in adding value to biscuit products Good idea to refrigerate chocolate chips before adding to cookie doughs, this will help reduce smearing of chips through the dough

Flavours in foods
A

major factor in the successful sale of food products Impart aroma and taste to food products Makes the food attractive and palatable. Have no food value.

Our Senses
Nose

Mouth Aroma + Taste = Flavour Many sweet acid salt bitter

WHAT IS A FLAVOUR

?
FLAVOURANTS/ FLAVOUR RAW MATERIALS BASE/SUPPORT/SOLVENT = FLAVOUR/FLAVOURING

Classification of flavour ingredients

Natural

Is the essential oil , ,oleoresin, essence OR Is the essential oil oleoresin, essence OR extractive , ,protein hydrolysate which contains the extractive protein hydrolysate which contains the flavoring constituent, derived from spice , , flavoring constituent, derived from spice fruits,herbs etc., fruits,herbs etc.,

Orange oil,lemon oil

available nature which Molecules available in identical are Molecules Natureinnature which are synthesised and made chemically identical synthesised and made chemically identical

Vanillin, ethyl butyrate

Flavour that are made than don't meet the Flavour that are made than don't meet the defining Artificial definingthe above. the above.

Ethyl vanillin, methyl coumarin.

Physical classification of flavours


Liquid

Powder Paste

water soluble oil soluble emulsions dispersed encapsulated

FLAVOUR M ATRIX

Food Does not taste as it should when it is not coloured right

COLOURS

Colour is Associated with Every aspect of our Lives. Colour -Plays an Integral role
- in our Behavioral decisions. -in conditioning our Choice. -Plays an Important role -in Taste threshold, -in flavour Identification --in food Preference -in Pleasantness and Food Choice

Role of Colours
Colour

influences the taste of Food. Vision interacts with taste and odour. Colour can affect the perception of foods and drinks. People learn and become familiar with specific combinations of colours and tastes. These learned associations may alter our perceptions and create expectations about how a food should smell and taste Flavour can be influenced by the way food or drink looks, smells and feels .

Role of colour in Foods


Visual

attribute , makes the product attractive and appetising Plays a greater role in the success or failure of a food product. Natural colours /Approved Synthetic colours /Caramel colour .

Natural Colours
EXAMPLES OF NATURAL OCCURRENCE COLOUR PIGMENT

Annatto Carrots Oranges Prawns Red Peppers Saffron Tomatoes Palm Fruit

Carotenoids: Mixed Carotenes

EC No

Yellow Orange Red

beta-Carotene Bixin/Norbixin Capsanthin/Capsorubin Lycopene Apocarotenal Apocarotenal ( Ethyl Ester) Lutein Canthaxanthin Curcumin Riboflavin Carbon Black Melanoidins

E 160a ( i )160a ( E ii ) E 160b E 160c E 160d E 160e E 160f E 161b E 161g

Turmeric Eggs, Milk , Yeast Carbonised Vegetable Material Melanoidins (Caramel) Yellow Yellow Black Brown

E 100 E 101 E 153 E 150ad

Synthetic Colours
Synthetic Food Colours, also known as Artificial Food Colours, are manufactured chemically and are the most commonly used dyes in the food. Primary Colours Blended Colours Lake Food Colours

Synthetic Colours
Primary Food Colours These colours are also known as food colors,colourings, food dyes, food additives, food lakes & food blends worldwide.

Product/Colour Shade

C.I.No.

F.D. & C.No

E.No.

QUINOLINE YELLOW 47005 Di sodium salt of disulfonates of 2-(2quinolyl) - 1, 3 indandione.)

E 104

TARTRAZINE 19140 Yellow 5 ( Tri sodium salt of 5-hydroxy (1-p-sulphophenyl 4- ( p-sulphophenylazo) pyrazol -3- carboxylicacid SUNSET YELLOW FCF 15985 ( Di sodium salt of disulfonates of 2-(2quinolyl) - 1, 3 indandione.) Yellow 6

E 102

E 110

ERYTHROSINE 45430 Red 3 ( Di sodium salt of disulfonates of 2-(2quinolyl) - 1, 3 indandione.) PONCEAU 4R 16255 ( Di sodium salt of disulfonates of 2-(2quinolyl) - 1, 3 indandione.) ALLURA RED 16035 ( Di sodium salt of disulfonates of 2-(2quinolyl) - 1, 3 indandione.) -

E 127

E 124

Red 40

E 129