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Change and Human Resource

Development

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Introduction

Change is a “constant” today.
Developing trust is critical to
reducing employee resistance.
– open communication
– employee participation
– acting consistently
– demonstrating integrity
– showing concern
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Human Resource Development

Def.: efforts to improve employee
competency levels and
organizational performance
through training and
development.
Q: What is the best training
experience you’ve ever had?
The worst? Why?

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Training is “big business”!

• More money is spent in the U.S. on
training and development than on
all higher education
• Over $52 billion spent by employers
in 1995
• Adding in indirect costs, estimates
of employer expenditures on
training and development raise to
over $200 billion annually
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Q: Just what do we mean by
training and development?
 any planned efforts designed to
facilitate the acquisition of job-
relevant skills, knowledge,
and/or attitudes by
organizational members.
Q: What makes training a strategic
investment?

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Scenario:

Imagine you work in a
manufacturing facility which is
upgrading its production
processes. Management estimates
that as many as half the current
work force will not be able to
handle the new processes without
upgrading their math and reading
skills. What would you do?

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We need a systematic approach
to training
cf., Goldstein’s Systems Model of
Training (p.231):
ADIE
• Assessment
• Design
• Implementation
• Evaluation

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Needs Assessment

Assessment works best with three
types of analyses:
1. Organization analysis
2. Task/KSA analysis
3. Person analysis

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Organization Analysis

Q: Where is training needed in this
organization?

> Use information from strategic
and HR planning

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Task/KSA Analysis

Q: What must a trainee be taught in
order to perform effectively?

> Use information from job
analysis

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Person Analysis

Q: Who needs training, and what
kind?

> Use information from
performance appraisal and
selection techniques

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Training Design

Three important issues:
1. On- versus off-the-job training
2. What is the best training media
to use?
3. What are the most important
learning principles to
incorporate in our training
efforts?

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Training Media

• Lecture/Discussion
• Programmed Instruction/
Computer Assisted Instruction
• Experiential Exercises/
Simulations

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Learning Principles:

• Trainability

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Learning Principles:

• Trainability

Performance = Motivation x Ability

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Learning Principles:

• Trainability

Performance = Motivation x Ability

• Massed vs. Distributed Practice

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“Instant Quiz”

• To study for your next test, which
study schedule would be most
effective?
A. one day, eight hours, non-stop

B. 4 hours a day for 2 days

C. 2 hours a day for 4 days

D. 1 hour a day for 8 days
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“Instant Quiz”

• To study for your next test, which
study schedule would be most
effective?
A. one day, eight hours, non-stop

B. 4 hours a day for 2 days

C. 2 hours a day for 4 days

-> D. 1 hour a day for 8 days
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Learning Principles:

• Trainability

Performance = Motivation x Ability

• Massed vs. Distributed Practice

• Transfer

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Summary of Key Learning
Principles
For skills learning: For knowledge:
• Goal setting • Goal setting
• Modeling • Meaningfulness
• Practice • Practice
• Feedback • Feedback
• Transfer • Transfer
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Training Implementation

A. Management vs. line employees

B. Many techniques available!
1. Case studies
2. Videotape/CD-ROM
3. Distance Learning
4. Behavior Modeling
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Training Evaluation

A. CRITERIA for evaluation: What
should be evaluated?
1. Reaction
2. Learning
3. Behavior
4. Results

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Training Evaluation

B. DESIGN for evaluation:
1. Why is it valuable to pretest
trainees?
2. Why do the best-conducted
training efforts include a
“control” group?

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Global Issues in Training and
Development

A. What are the pros and cons of
an overseas assignment?
B. What particular differences do
women and minorities face in
cross-cultural assignments?
C. Do cross-cultural training
programs do any good?

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Do cross-cultural training
programs do any good?

YES!!
• Black & Mendenhall (1990)
• Deshpande & Viswesvaran (1991):
Mean Correlations
– Developing relationships
with host nationals: .38
– Adaptability to new culture: .37
– Performance evaluations: .37

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Wrap-Up

1. The value of a systematic
approach to training

“The person who fails to plan,
plans to fail.”

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Wrap-Up

2. The need for life-long learning
cf., Richard Bolles,
“The Three Boxes of Life”:

School, Work, Retirement

Learning, Work, Play

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