Evaluation of Customer Behaviour, Expectation & Perception in building Customer Relation

By: Swapna Chitra Sahoo Rashmita Jati Rupak Kumar Sahu

What is consumer behaviour?
It is the study of when, why, how, and where people

do or do not buy a product or service.

Whose Behaviour is Important?
•Buyer •Consumer


Factors influencing Consumer Behaviour
• Cultural and Social factors • Personal and Physical factors • Psychological factors

Cultural and Social factors • Formal learning • Informal learning • Technical learning • Income • Family • Reference groups .

Personal factors • Education • Occupation • Economic position • Status • Personality and self concept • Lifestyle .

Physical factors • Age • Sex • Health • Height and weight • Beauty .

Psychological factors • Motivation • Perception • Learning • Attitude and beliefs .


Consumer Buying Process .

Need Recognition • • • • • Physiological needs Safety and Security needs Social needs Ego needs Self-actualization .

Information Search • Personal and Non personal sources • Perceived Risk .

Post Purchase Evaluation • • • • Word-of-Mouth communication Attribution of Dissatisfaction Positive or Negative Biases Brand Loyalty .

Customer expectation • Reference point to compare service delivery • Mainly two levels: o maximum level o minimum level • Differ from customer to customer .

Levels of service performance Above maximum level Maximum service level Adequate service level Minimum service level Below minimum level .

Zone of tolerance .

Determinants of maximum level of service expectation • Needs and wants • Derived expectations • Personal expectations .

Determinants of minimum level of service expectation • Service choice • Emergencies • Participative ability • Situational factor .

Factors effecting both maximum & minimum level of expectation • Marketing communication • Word of mouth • Past experience .

Consumer Perception .

. and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world.Perception The process by which an individual selects. organizes.

Elements of Perception • Sensation • The absolute threshold • The differential threshold • Subliminal perception .

nose. . mouth. skin) that receive sensory inputs. ears.Sensory Receptors The human organs (eyes.

.Absolute Threshold The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation.

.Sensory Adaptation “Getting used to” certain sensations. becoming accommodated to a certain level of stimulation.

Differential Threshold The minimal difference that can be detected between two stimuli.n. . Also known as the j. (just noticeable difference).d.

for their products o so that negative changes are not readily discernible to the public o so that product improvements are very apparent to consumers .n.Marketing Applications of the jnd • Need to determine the relevant j.d.

Subliminal Perception Perception of very weak or rapid stimuli received below the level of conscious awareness. .

Perceptual Selection • Consumers subconsciously are selective as to what they perceive. • Stimuli selected depends on two major factors o Consumers’ previous experience o Consumers’ motives • Selection depends on the o Nature of the stimulus o Expectations o Motives .

Family Members and Co-workers .Perception is influenced by: • Product and Service Features • Consumer Emotion • Attribution for Service Success or Failure • Perception of Equity or Fairness • Other consumers.

customer evaluation and customer satisfaction • Service Quality Dimension: determines that the quality is based on multiple factors relevant to the context .Servqual • A critical element to analyse customer perception.

The Gap Model .

personnel and written materials . individualized attention given to customers • Tangibles: appearance of physical facilities.Servqual Factors • Reliability: ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately • Responsiveness: willingness to help customers and provide prompt service • Assurance: employees’ knowledge and courtesy and their ability to inspire trust and confidence • Empathy: caring. equipment.


remembers previous problems tangibles Repair facilities. good safety record. ticketing counters. in-flight baggage handling Trusted name. no waiting. waiting area. responds to request Assurance Knowledgeab le mechanics Empathy Acknowledg es customers by names or designation. uniforms . baggage area. equipment Airline (Consumer) Flights to promised destinations depart and arrive on schedule Prompt and speedy system for ticketing. anticipates customers needs Aircraft.Judgment of 5 Servqual dimensions by customers Reliability Car Repair (Consumer) Problem fixed the first time and ready when promised Responsiveness Accessible. uniforms. competent employees Understand special individual needs.

Service Encounters • Otherwise known as “moment of truth” is when customers interacts with the service firm • It is potentially critical in determining customer satisfaction and loyalty • Types: o Remote Encounters o Phone Encounters o Face-to-Face Encounters .




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