03 Angle Modulation | Frequency Modulation | Modulation

Angle Modulation

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Advantages and Disadvantages
(over AM)

– Advantages
• good fidelity
• good noise immunity
• More efficient use of power
– Disadvantages
• BW requirement is higher for FM


2
SNR is good
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• Applications of FM
– TV sound signal
– 2 way radio (fixed and mobile)
– Satellite and cellular communication

• Applications of PM
– Extensively used in data communication
– Used as an intermediate step in FM signal
generation
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• Frequency Modulation (FM) and Phase Modulation (PM) are grouped
as angle modulation.
• Consider the simple sinewave





where gives the instantaneous phase

• A change in frequency can cause a change in phase. Therefore direct
FM is indirect PM and direct PM is indirect FM.
• Note also that

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Frequency Modulation (FM)
• For FM, the carrier’s instantaneous frequency deviation from
its unmodulated (resting) value varies in proportion to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal.
• Let the modulating signal be a sine wave
e
m
(t) =E
m
sin e
m
t
• The frequency deviation Δf is proportional to the amplitude
of the modulating signal, therefore:
f
FM
(t) = f
c
+ Af
f
FM
(t) = f
c
+ k
f
e
m
(t)
where f
FM
(t) is the frequency of the modulated signal,
f
c
is the unmodulated carrier frequency

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FM – frequency deviation
Frequency deviation proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.

















Then f
FM
(t) = f
c
+ k
f
E
m
sin e
m
t

and k
f
E
m
= o = peak frequency deviation in Hz

hence f
FM
(t) = f
c
+ o sin e
m
t

m f
e k f = A
6
k
f
(Hz/V)= deviation sensitivity of the
modulator

e
m
= modulating signal amplitude

Af = instantaneous frequency deviation

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Square wave
modulating a sine
wave carrier
7
Modulated signal in time domain
Change in the carrier’s frequency
over time according to the amplitude
of the modulating signal
Change in the carrier’s phase over time.

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FM – modulation index

• The FM’s modulation index is defined as, m
f
= o/f
m
• Unlike AM , m
f
can be > 1; there are no limits
• Since m
f
= o/f
m
thus
f
FM
(t) = f
c
+ m
f
f
m
sin e
m
t

• Example 1
An FM modulator has k
f
=30kHz/V and operates at a carrier
frequency of 175 MHz. Determine the output frequency for an
instantaneous value of the modulating signal equal to 150mV.



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Phase modulation

• In PM the phase shift of the carrier is proportional to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal.
m(t)= E
c
cos (e
c
t + k
p
E
m
cos(e
m
t))
• Similar to FM k
p
= |/e
m

k
p
- phase deviation sensitivity, rad/V
| - phase deviation in radians
e
m
– modulating signal amplitude, volts

• And m
p
= | = k
p
E
m

• where m
p
is the phase modulation index
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Example 2
The signal v
m
(t) = 2 cos(2t2000t) is to be transmitted.
(i) If the signal is to be FM, determine the peak
frequency deviation and the modulation index given that
k
f
= 5 kHz/V.
(ii) If the signal is to be PM, determine the peak phase
deviation given k
p
= 2.5 rad/V

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Angle Modulation Spectrum
• FM and PM have similar equation of the form:
V(t) = A sin (e
c
t + m sin e
m
t)
where m can be m
f
or m
p

When elaborated, V(t) is a series of sinusoids:-








where v(t) = instantaneous amplitude of modulated carrier
A = peak amplitude of the carrier
J
n
= solution to the nth order Bessel function for a given
modulation index (see Bessel table handout)

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An FM wave contains an infinite number of sideband components
Sidebands are separated from the carrier by multiples of the f
m
, with
decreasing amplitude as the distance from the carrier frequency increases.
Sidebands with amplitude <1% of the total signal voltage are usually ignored.

13
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

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• If the unmodulated carrier has an amplitude of 1V, J
0
represents the
amplitude of the carrier frequency (resting frequency).
• Total power in FM signal is distributed in the carrier and sideband
components.
• Total signal voltage and power does not change with modulation.
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• For unmodulated carrier =



• For FM (modulated carrier)





• Where P
T
= total rms power of FM wave
P
jn
= rms power in carrier
P
jn
= rms power in first, second ….nth set of sidebands
V
jn =
rms voltage of carrier, first, second…..nth sidebands.


( ) ( ) ( )
R
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
P P P P P
n
N
J J J J
J J J J T
2 2 2 2
2
.......
2 2
......
2 1 0
2 1 0
+ + + =
+ + + =
R
V
P
rms
c
T
2
=
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Angle Mod. Bandwidth





• 2 methods
(i) With help of the Bessel’s frequency spectrum
B = 2( n x f
m
)
• n is the number of significant sideband components
(ii) Carson’s rule (an approximation – BW for about 98% of
total power)
B = 2( o + f
m
)
• δ is the peak frequency deviation
• f
m
is the modulating frequency
16
Bandwidth
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Example 3
An FM modulator with a modulation index of m=1 modulates the message
signal v
m
= 2sin(2000tt) and a carrier signal of Vc = 10sin(10
6
tt). The load
resistance is 50O.

i) How many pairs of significant sidebands are transmitted?
ii) Determine the sidebands’ amplitude.
iii) Sketch the output frequency spectrum, showing their relative
amplitudes
iv) Determine the unmodulated carrier power.
v) Determine the total power in the modulated wave.

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Narrowband & Wideband FM
• Theoretically there are no limitations to the m or o of the FM signal.
• In practice, a trade-off found is between SNR and BW. A good SNR
requires large BW. BW are usually limited by regulations and also Rx
design limitations
• With m<1, bandwidth of FM = bandwidth of AM. This is narrow-band
FM (NBFM). Eg voice transmission.
• With m>10, we get wideband FM – commercial FM radio, television.

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Note:
• All material in this slide has been
compiled/sourced/extracted from various
sources; electronic and non electronic media
for the purpose of teaching.
19 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA

Advantages and Disadvantages (over AM) – Advantages • good fidelity • good noise immunity • More efficient use of power SNR is good – Disadvantages • BW requirement is higher for FM 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 2 .

• Applications of FM – TV sound signal – 2 way radio (fixed and mobile) – Satellite and cellular communication • Applications of PM – Extensively used in data communication – Used as an intermediate step in FM signal generation 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 3 .

• Frequency Modulation (FM) and Phase Modulation (PM) are grouped as angle modulation. Therefore direct FM is indirect PM and direct PM is indirect FM. • Note also that 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 4 . • Consider the simple sinewave where gives the instantaneous phase • A change in frequency can cause a change in phase.

therefore: fFM(t) = fc + f fFM(t) = fc + kf em(t) where fFM(t) is the frequency of the modulated signal. • Let the modulating signal be a sine wave em(t) =Em sin mt • The frequency deviation Δf is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. the carrier’s instantaneous frequency deviation from its unmodulated (resting) value varies in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal. fc is the unmodulated carrier frequency 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 5 .Frequency Modulation (FM) • For FM.

 f  k f em kf (Hz/V)= deviation sensitivity of the modulator em = modulating signal amplitude f = instantaneous frequency deviation Then fFM(t) = fc + kf Em sin mt and hence kf Em =  = peak frequency deviation in Hz fFM(t) = fc +  sin mt H62TLC_RA 6 03/05/2012 .FM – frequency deviation Frequency deviation proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.

Square wave modulating a sine wave carrier Modulated signal in time domain Change in the carrier’s frequency over time according to the amplitude of the modulating signal Change in the carrier’s phase over time. 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 7 .

03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 8 .

mf can be > 1. Determine the output frequency for an instantaneous value of the modulating signal equal to 150mV. there are no limits • Since mf = /fm thus fFM(t) = fc + mf fm sin mt • Example 1 An FM modulator has kf =30kHz/V and operates at a carrier frequency of 175 MHz. 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 9 .FM – modulation index • The FM’s modulation index is defined as. mf = /fm • Unlike AM .

m(t)= Ec cos (ct + kpEmcos(mt)) • Similar to FM kp = /em kp .phase deviation in radians em – modulating signal amplitude. volts • And mp =  = kpEm • where mp is the phase modulation index 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 10 .Phase modulation • In PM the phase shift of the carrier is proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal. rad/V  .phase deviation sensitivity.

5 rad/V 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 11 . (ii) If the signal is to be PM. determine the peak phase deviation given kp = 2. (i) If the signal is to be FM.Example 2 The signal vm(t) = 2 cos(2p2000t) is to be transmitted. determine the peak frequency deviation and the modulation index given that kf = 5 kHz/V.

Angle Modulation Spectrum • FM and PM have similar equation of the form: V(t) = A sin (ct + m sin mt) where m can be mf or mp When elaborated. V(t) is a series of sinusoids:- where v(t) = instantaneous amplitude of modulated carrier A = peak amplitude of the carrier Jn = solution to the nth order Bessel function for a given modulation index (see Bessel table handout) 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 12 .

Sidebands with amplitude <1% of the total signal voltage are usually ignored.Sidebands are separated from the carrier by multiples of the fm. 03/05/2012 Relative amplitude An FM wave contains an infinite number of sideband components H62TLC_RA 13 . with decreasing amplitude as the distance from the carrier frequency increases.

• If the unmodulated carrier has an amplitude of 1V. • Total signal voltage and power does not change with modulation. J0 represents the amplitude of the carrier frequency (resting frequency). • Total power in FM signal is distributed in the carrier and sideband components. 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 14 .

nth set of sidebands Vjn = rms voltage of carrier.. J N P  VJ20 R  2 VJ2 1 R 2 J2    2V   .. second…... second …. 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 15 .2V  2 Jn R R • Where PT = total rms power of FM wave Pjn = rms power in carrier Pjn = rms power in first.......nth sidebands...• For unmodulated carrier = PT  • Vcrms R 2 For FM (modulated carrier) PT  PJ 0  PJ1  PJ 2  . first.

Angle Mod. Bandwidth Bandwidth • 2 methods (i) With help of the Bessel’s frequency spectrum B = 2( n x fm) • n is the number of significant sideband components (ii) Carson’s rule (an approximation – BW for about 98% of total power) B = 2(  + fm) • δ is the peak frequency deviation • fm is the modulating frequency 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 16 .

i) ii) iii) How many pairs of significant sidebands are transmitted? Determine the sidebands’ amplitude.Example 3 An FM modulator with a modulation index of m=1 modulates the message signal vm = 2sin(2000pt) and a carrier signal of Vc = 10sin(106pt). The load resistance is 50. showing their relative amplitudes iv) Determine the unmodulated carrier power. v) Determine the total power in the modulated wave. Sketch the output frequency spectrum. 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 17 .

BW are usually limited by regulations and also Rx design limitations • With m<1. a trade-off found is between SNR and BW. we get wideband FM – commercial FM radio. • With m>10.Narrowband & Wideband FM • Theoretically there are no limitations to the m or  of the FM signal. • In practice. 03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 18 . A good SNR requires large BW. This is narrow-band FM (NBFM). television. bandwidth of FM = bandwidth of AM. Eg voice transmission.

03/05/2012 H62TLC_RA 19 .Note: • All material in this slide has been compiled/sourced/extracted from various sources. electronic and non electronic media for the purpose of teaching.

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