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You are on page 1of 15

DFA FROM R.E

By…

Sukanta behera

Reg. No.

07SBSCA048

OUTLINE

INTRODUCTION

DFA

NFA WITH ε- MOVES

REGULAR EXPRESSION

DFA FROM R.E

NFA FROM R.E

INTRODUCTION

A Finite automaton is a mathematical

model of a with discrete inputs and

outputs

E.g.: A switch circuit

1

q0 q

1

0

A finite automaton(FA) consists of a finite

set of states and a set of transistors from

one state to another state that occur on

an input symbol from alphabet ‘Z’.

Deterministic Finite

Automata(DFA)

For each input symbol there is exactly one

transition out of each state such a finite

automaton is otherwise called Deterministic

Finite Automata(DFA).

We formally define a finite automata by a 5-

tuple represented as

M=[Q,Σ,δ,q0,F] where

Q is a finite set of states

Σ is a finite input alphabet.

q0 in Q is the initial state

F C Q : where F is a set of final states; and

δ is the transition function that maps QXΣ to

Q.

NONDETERMINISTIC FINITE

AUTOMATON WITH ε-MOVES

This NFA is modeled to include transitions on

the empty input ‘ε’.

Nondeterministic finite automaton with ε-

moves is defined to be a

quintuple(Q,Σ,δ,q0,F) where Q is a set of

states

Σ is a set of input symbols

q0 is the initial state

F is the Final state

The difference lies only in δ1 the transition

function that maps QX(ΣU{ε}) to 2^Q

i.e; δ(q,a) will consists of a set of states P

such that there is a transition labeled ‘a’ from

q to p where ‘a’ is either ‘ε’ or a symbol in Σ.

REGULAR EXPRESSION

The language accepted by finite

automata can be simple expressions

called regular expressions

The union of two languages L and M ,

denoted LUM, is the set of strings that

are in either L or M or both.

The concatenation of languages L and M

is the set of strings that can be formed by

taking any string in L and concatenating it

with any string in M.

The closure (or star, or Kleene closure) of

a language L is denoted L* and represent

the set of those strings that can be

formed by taking any number of strings

More Regular Expressions

All strings of 1s and 0s ending in a 1

( 0 | 1 )* 1

**All strings over lowercase letters where
**

the vowels (a,e,i,o, & u) occur exactly

once, in ascending order

Cons → (b|c|d|f|g|h|j|k|l|m|n|p|q|r|s|t|v|w|x|y|

z)

Cons* a Cons* e Cons* i Cons* o Cons* u Cons*

**All strings of 1s and 0s that do not contain
**

three 0s in a row:

Overview:

Direct construction of a nondeterministic

finite automaton (NFA) to recognize a given

RE

Requires ε-transitions to combine regular

subexpressions

Construct a deterministic finite automaton

(DFA) to simulate the NFA

Use a set-of-states construction

Minimize the number of states

Hopcroft state minimization algorithm

Generate the scanner code

Additional specifications needed for details

Automating Scanner

Construction

RE→ NFA(Thompson’s construction)

Build an NFA for each term

Combine them with ε-moves

NFA→ DFA (subset construction)

Build the simulation The Cycle of Constructions

DFA→ Minimal DFA

Hopcroft’s algorithm

minimal

DFA→RE (Not part of the scanner construction)

RE NFA DFA

DFA

**All pairs, all paths problem
**

Take the union of all paths from s0 to an

accepting state

using Thompson’s

RE →NFA

Construction

Key idea

NFA pattern for each symbol & each operator

Join them with ε moves in precedence order

a

S0 S1 a ε b

S0 S1 S3 S4

NFA for

a NFA for ab

S1

a

S2 ε

ε ε

S0 S5 S0 ε S1

a

S3 ε S4

ε b ε ε

S3 S4

NFA for a*

NFA for a | b

Example of Construction

Let’s try a ( b | c )*

1. a, b, & c

a b c

S0 S1 S0 S1 S0 S1

2. b | c S1

b

S2

ε ε

S0 S5

ε c ε

S3 S4

ε

3. ( b | c )* ε S2

b

S3 ε

S0 ε S1 S6 ε S7

ε c ε

S4 S5

ε

Example of Construction

(con’t)

4. a ( b | c )* ε

b

ε S4 S5 ε

S0

a

S1 ε ε ε

S2 S3 S8 S9

ε c ε

S6 S7

ε

**Of course, a human would design something
**

simpler ...

b|c

a

S0 S1

with Subset

NFA →DFA

Construction

Need to build a simulation of the NFA

**Two key functions
**

Move(si , a) is set of states reachable from

si by a

ε-closure(si) is set of states reachable from

si by ε

The algorithm:

Start state derived from s0 of the NFA

Take its ε-closure S0 = ε-closure(s0)

Take the image of S0, Move(S0, α) for each α

∈ Σ, and take its ε-closure

Iterate until no more states are added

NFA →DFA with Subset Construction

a ( b | c )* :

b q5

ε q4 ε

q0 a q1 ε q2 ε q3 q8 ε q9

ε q6 c q7 ε

ε

**Applying the subset construction:
**

ε-closure(move(s,*))

NFA states a b c

s0 q0 q1, q2, q3, none none

q4, q6, q9

s1 q1, q2, q3, none q5, q8, q9, q7, q8, q9,

q4, q6, q9 q3, q4, q6 q3, q4, q6

s2 q5, q8, q9, none s2 s3

q3, q4, q6

s3 q7, q8, q9, none s2 s3

q3, q4, q6

Final states

with Subset

NFA →DFA

Construction

The DFA for a ( b | c )*

b

δ a b c

s2

b s0 s1 - -

a

s0 s1 b c s1 - s2 s3

c s2 - s2 s3

s3

c

s3 - s2 s3

**Ends up smaller than the NFA
**

All transitions are deterministic

Use same code skeleton as before

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