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Techniques

By…

Sukanta behera

Reg. No. 07SBSCA048

Data Compression

Lossless data compression:

Store/Transmit big files using few bytes so

that the original files can be perfectly

retrieved. Example: zip.

Store/Transmit big files using few bytes so

that the original files can be approximately

retrieved. Example: mp3.

bandwidth.

Definition of Codec

Let Σ be an alphabet and let S µ Σ*

be a set of possible messages.

A coder c : S ! {0,1}*

A decoder d: {0,1}* ! Σ*

so that

8 x 2 S: d(c(x))=x

Remarks

It is necessary for c to be an injective map.

to specify d if we have specified c.

rather than “codec”.

code words of the codec. In examples to follow,

we often just state the set of code words.

Proposition

Let S = {0,1}n. Then, for any codec

(c,d) there is some x 2 S, so that |

c(x)| ¸ n.

“Compression is impossible”

Proposition

For any message x, there is a codec

(c,d) so that |c(x)|=1.

compressed to 1 bit”.

Remarks

We cannot compress all data. Thus, we must

concentrate on compressing “relevant” data.

We should concentrate on compressing data about

which there is uncertainty.

uncertainty about relevant data.

Can random data be

compressed?

Suppose Σ = {0,1} and S = {0,1}2.

can we do well on the average?

S and look at the expected length of the

code words.

Definition of prefix codes

A prefix code c is a code with the property that

for all different messages x and y, c(x) is not a

prefix of c(y).

Example: {0,11,10}

Proposition

If c is a prefix code for S = Σ1 then cn

is a prefix code for S = Σn where

c(xn)

Prefix codes and trees

Set of code words of a prefix code:

{0,11,10}.

0 1

0 1

Alternative view of prefix

codes

A prefix code is an assignment of the

messages of S to the leaves of a

rooted binary tree.

found by reading the labels on the

edges on the path from the root of the

tree to the leaf corresponding to x.

Binary trees and the interval

[0,1)

0 1

[0,1/2) 0 1

[1/2,3/4) [3/4,1)

Alternative view of prefix

codes

A prefix code is an assignment of the

messages of S to disjoint dyadic

intervals.

the form [ k 2- m, (k+1) 2- m ) with

k+1 · 2m. The corresponding code

word is the m-bit binary

representation of k.

Kraft-McMillan Inequality

Let m1, m2, … be the lengths of the

code words of a prefix code. Then, ∑ 2-

mi

· 1.

· 1. Then there is prefix code c so that

{mi} are the lengths of the code words

of c.

Probability

A probability distribution p on S is a

Y: S ! U.

expected value E[Y] is ∑x 2 S p(x) Y(x).

Self-entropy

Given a probability distribution p on S, the self-entropy of

x 2 S is the defined as

H(x) = – log2 p(x).

Entropy

Given a probability distribution p on S, its

entropy H[p] is defined as E[H], i.e.

H[p] = – ∑x 2 S p(x) log2 p(x).

is the entropy of its underlying distribution:

H[X] = – ∑i Pr[X=i] log2 Pr[X=i]

Facts

The entropy of the uniform distribution on

{0,1}n is n bits. Any other distribution on

{0,1}n has strictly smaller entropy.

variables, then H(X1, X2) = H(X1) + H(X2).

Shannon’s theorem

Let S be a set of messages and let X be an S-

valued stochastic variable.

E[ |c(X)| ] ¸ H[X].

E[ |c(X)| ] < H[X] + 1

In fact, for all x in S, |c(x)| < H[x] + 1.

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