This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Yogurt and Immunity
The Health Benefit of Fermented Milk Products That Contain Lactic Acid Bacteria
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 5.1 History and Culture Related to Fermented Food. 5.2 Yogurt Production. 5.3 The Effects of Fermentation on Milk. 5.3.1 Effects on Chemistry, Nutrient Content, and Activities of Enzymes. 5.3.2 Health Benefits of Fermented Milk Consumption. 5.4 Fermented Milk and the Immune System 5.4.1 Overview of the Immune System. 5.4.2 The Immune System of the Gastrointestinal Tract. 5.5 Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Gastrointestinal System 5.5.1 Lactic Acid Bacteria and Mucosal Health 5.5.2 Lactic Acid Bacteria and Protection Against Enteric Pathogens 5.5.3 Lactic Acid Bacteria, Nutrient Digestion, and Antigen Uptake 5.6 Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue and the Establishment of Immune Tolerance 5.7 Intestinal Microflora and Oral Tolerance 5.8 Cytokines and Fermented Milk 5.9 Lactic Acid Bacteria and Immune Cell Function 5.9.1 Innate Immune Responses 5.9.2 Phagocytic Activity of Macrophages and Granulocytes 5.9.3 Natural Killer Cell Activity 5.9.4 Immunostimulating versus Immunosuppressive Effects. 5.10 Conclusions
and health effects of consumption of fermented milk in both animals and humans. .• In this chapter we will learn the compositional changes of milk during fermentation.
1 History and culture related to fermented food The history of fermented milk is long and widely varied according to culture Abraham.5. the normal life may extend to twice” .Fecundity and longevity I the early 1500s King Francis I.goats’ milk Elie metchnikoff hypothesis in the early 1900s “ When people have learnt how to cultivate a suitable microflora in the intestine of children as soon as they are weaned from the breast.
bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus (formic acid) and Lb. Acetone. bulgaricus (AA. 100 to 10. Lactones and volatile acids by-products of bacterial metabolism “Protocooperation” between S.Acetoin. Diacetylactis and Leuconostoc cremoris for buttery taste Flavor components.6 Lactococcus cremoris.Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) – Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Lb.2 YOGURT PRODUCTION Yogurt is a thick liquid food prepared from cream or milk fermented by added active cultures of bacteria US FDA.5. Leuconostoc Acetaldehyde provide aroma (smell) Viscosity or create a ropy texture Diacetyl by Lc.peptides) .thermophilus) Milk Sugar (Lactose) lactic acid fermentation 40-400C for 4-5 h.000-fold 109/ml complete coagulation at pH – 4.
histidine.5.bulgaricus peptides .3 THE EFFECTS OF FERMENTATION ON MILK 5. serine & proline) Pepetidase Homofermentative one major product is lactic acid Protein (Casein) • .1 Effects on Chemistry. Nutrient Content. free AA ( valine.3. and Activities of Enzymes • Lb.
5.2 Health benefits of fermented milk consumption • • • • • • Numerous reports published of health benefit but mechanism are still being investigated Small scale studies on diarrhea have shown that probiotics are beneficial Probiotics influence intestinal physiology either directly or indirectly through modulation of endogenous ecosystem or Immune system survival rate are 20-40% for selective strains main obstacle is gastric acidity ad bile salt Maximum probiotic effect can be achieved if the organism adhere to the intestinal mucosal cells Prebiotic ( food ingredient that stimulate the growth of probiotic) • studies giving a proof that enable probiotics to be used as treatment of GI disturbances -The use of Saccharomyces boulardii.3. and Enterococcus faecium SF 68 to prevent or shorten the duration of antibiotic-associated diarrhea Yogurt also enhances protective immunity against respiratory tract infections . fermented milk drink with Lb. S. and β-hemolytic streptococci). pneumoniae.Mice infected with Streptococcus pneumonia improved many ecological parameters Human study by Gluck et al. GG (ATCC 53103). Lactobacillus. investigated the effects of a probiotic. acidophilus 145. Bifidobacterium sp B420. and S.thermophilus on nasal colonization with pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus. Lb. • • .
4 fermented milk and the Immune system 5.4.1 Overview of the immune system .5.
5.4.2 The immune system of the gastrointestinal tract • • Organ specific lymphoid tissues have unique property not found elsewhere GI tract contains a specialized MALT system that also include the lungs called GALT .
johnsonii La1) and bifidobacteria (3 × 125 g/d. typhimurium. typhi Ty21a consumed fermented milk containing Lb.specific IgA in their intestinal fluid Experiment with human volunteers vaccination with attenuated S. Lactococcus lactis • • • . acidophilus La1 (now Lb.5.5 Effects of Lactic acid bacteria on the Gastrointestinal system • Yogurt supplementation to a standard renutrition diet improves the intestinal function of malnourished animals Yogurt improves the barrier function of the intestine Swiss albino mice fed fresh yogurt for 7 d. then challenged with 20 LD50 of Salmonella tyhpimurium. 107–108 colony forming units [CFU] per gram) and similar study with Lactobacillus GG (ATCC 53103). showed higher concentrations of S.
5. administration of Lactobacillus GG (1010 CFU twice daily) for 10 d was associated with a significant increase in cells secreting IgA specific for β-lactoglobulin and casein • • . a disease often characterized by a relative deficiency in mucosal IgA.5. casei GG in those who received the vaccine along with a placebo In children with Crohn’s disease.1 Lactic acid bacteria and mucosal health • Assays of Ig-secreting cells Enzyme-linked immnospot (ELISPOT) and specific antibody-secreting cells (sASC) among circulating lymphocytes showed that the nonspecific immune response was significantly greater in children receiving Lactobacillus GG than in those given a placebo a higher rate of rotavirus IgA was observed in infants given an oral rotavirus vaccine together with Lb.
or metabolites produced during fermentation. are normally isolated from green plant material and milk. studies with mice that feeding yogurt resulted in an alteration in the intestinal flora. bulgaricus.and bile-resistant. S.2 Lactic Acid Bacteria and protection against enteric pathogens • most commonly found LAB in fermented milk products.5. with only 15% surviving the passage through the stomach and about 1% reach the large intestine where they fail to colonize But they may exert an effect in vivo due to intracellular enzymes. respectively These bacteria are not highly acid.5. cell surface antigenic receptors. thermophilus and Lb. stimulating the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria Changes such as these in the intestinal microflora are thought to affect the intestinal transit time and may have an impact on nutrient absorption Reports suggest us while the colonizing bacteria are low they do have an impact on health • • • • .
5. into less antigenic and potentially immunomodulating peptides • • . and Antigen Uptake • • Important function of LAB is help in the absorption of indigestible food Recent study of transcription of broad array of genes and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron similar result obtained with Escherichia coli or Bifidobacterium infantis Study suggests us colonization can play an important role in increasing the efficiency of nutrient absorption and metabolism. and possibly other macromolecules.3 Lactic Acid Bacteria.5. Nutrient Digestion. • • higher nutrient efficiency has been reported in animals fed a yogurt-based diet as compared to animals fed a milkbased diet Experiment with suckling rats given cows milk the absorption rate of degraded HRP was greater in the group receiving cows milk with Lb. casei GG like this many reports suggest LAB can modulate antigen uptake Experiment with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) suggest Lb. casei GG can digest casein.
Skewing of an Immune response to an allergen towards a Th2-type phenotype and overproduction of IL-4 “Hygiene hypothesis”.Partial scarcity of microbial stimuli due to increased hygiene • • Several results suggest intestinal microflora of allergic children(coliforms. lactobacilli) study using Nc/Nga mice administered Lb. johnsonii NCC533 during the weaning period prevented the development of atopic dermatitis induced by mite antigens • .5.6 Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue and The Establishment of Immune Tolerance • The GALT in addition to acting as a helper in mucosal defense also plays a role in establishment of systemic hyporesponsiveness • Allergy. staphylococcus aureus) differ from non allergic children(bifidobacteria.
and strains may be required Supplementation with LAB may provide such renewed stimuli for the maintenance of predominant Th1-type responses In human in vitro study using three LAB strains (Lb. it has therefore been proposed that. lactis) have been successfully used as a mucosal vaccine in an animal model of allergy. study have demonstrated that oral administration of fermented milk with Lb. • • • • . plantarum and Lb. reuteri ATCC no. and Lb. gasseri TMC0356 for 4 weeks significantly lowered serum levels of IgE selective LAB strains (Lb. 33200. Lb. 23272) indicated a shift towards a Th1-type immune response Morita et al. for the intestinal microflora to play a continued role in the protection from atopic diseases. a high turnover of bacterial genera. gasseri ATCC no.7 Intestinal Microflora and Oral Tolerance • • Oral tolerance – IgG unresponsiveness to ovalbumin (OVA) The immune response to commensal bacteria is transient and is replaced by tolerance soon after the initial colonization. species.5. johnsonii ATCC no. 19992.
Mesenteric lymph nodes (MSN) or Payers patches yogurt fermented with Lb. thermophilus. acidophilus and/or Bifidobacterium sp. studied IL-4 and IFN-γ release by immunohistochemistry author determined in these studies that LAB were able to induce a diversity of responses mediated by the cytokines released In a more recent study. The effect depended on the type of yogurt fed. Lb. some contained Lb. thermophilus. IL-4 and IFN-γ cytokines maintain the balance between the populations Th2 and Th1 respectively Mouse study preformed by Perdigon et al. Lb. bulgaricus and S. acidophilus. was able to adhere and interact with mucosal epithelial cells of both small and large intestine Several human studies also indicate that yogurt consumption may be associated with an increase in IFN-γ synthesis • • • • • . B. bulgaricus. the authors also demonstrated that a homologous strain. and bifidobacteria) have been reported to induce the synthesis of IFN-γ in vitro Experiment with B6C3F1 mice on cytokine expression in spleen. in addition.5.8 Cytokines and Fermented Milk • • Effect of fermented milk product on immune system involves the production of various cytokines Many LAB (S.. animalis.
B. a pattern recognition receptor. lactis. thermophilus all suppressed the proliferation • 5. delbrueckii ssp. acidophilus. casei CRL 431 interacted with epithelial cells through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). johnsonii or Lb. and this interaction induced IL-6 secretion • .5.9. bulgaricus. sakei for 5 d resulted in a strong proliferative response while Homogenates of Lb. study Lb. rhamnosus GG. and S. Lb.1 Innate Immune Responses • Several studies have reported that the immunomodulatory effects of LAB are mainly on the innate immune response Vinderola et al.9 Lactic Acid bacteria and Immune Cell Function • Highly variable results were obtained both in vitro and ex vivo experiment assessing the effects of LAB on lymphocyte proliferation incubation of human PBMC with live Lb. Lb.
acidophilus. casei.5. Lb. for 8 d compared to non supplemented mice In human study provided fermented milk with 7 × 1010 CFU Lb. there was a highly significant increase in leukocyte phagocytic activity • • From this and other experiment using different strain author concluded that minimal effective dose for modulating granulocyte or monocyte activities was 109 CFU/d Numerous LAB have a stimulatory effect on macrophage activities • . acidophilus La1 or 1 × 1010 B.9. bifidum strain Bb 12 for 3 weeks.2 Phagocytic activity of macrophages and Granulocytes • Mice Peritoneal macrophages phagocytic activity significantly increased when supplemented with milk fermented with Lb.
3 Natural Killer cell activity • Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in inhibiting carcinogenesis and IL12 is a strong inducer of NK cells LAB including LcS have been shown to stimulate IL-12 production In mice with Lb.9. lactis in low-fat milk was associated with significantly higher NK cytotoxicity • • • Perdigon et al. rhamnosus and with human volunteer Daily intake for 3 weeks of B. They demonstrated that yogurt can down regulate the inflammatory response .5. studied the mechanisms by which yogurt was able to inhibit the growth of a chemically induced intestinal tumor.
4 Immunostimulating versus Immunosuppressive Effects • Production stimulation of TNF−α and IL-1β proinflammatory cytokines suggest that LAB may have proinflammatory activities LAB therapy has been examined in several of autoimmune diseases conditions. no worse condition of inflammation has been observed immunosuppressive effect have been shown by certain strains of LAB by inducing IL-10-producing regulatory T cells Immunomodulation is depend on the strain and species of LAB thorough assessment of LAB in vitro and in animal models will be important before they can be used to modulate diseases characterized by immune deviation • • • .5.9. and to date.
microbial strains. procedures.5. and drive the development of improved fermented milk products • • . the yogurt-immunity connection remains as an exciting and attractive area of research for a variety of disciplines new methodology. and research findings will make stronger the variation in studies present today.10 Conclusions • More than a century research has surrounded the association between fermented product yogurt and health and Important finding of the study is direct effect of yogurt on immune system Even though human and mice studied a significant amount of research is still required to address the fundamental basis for the mechanisms of yogurt’s biological consequences • • Limits to rapid progress in this area due to equally complexity of immune system and microbial physiology in vivo Despite the limitations.
Questions …….? ..
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.