NAME ~ PRATIK DEBNATH SUBJECT ~ cryptography ROLLNO ~ 08182003043

ECE

~ 8TH SEM

HISTORY
WORKING PRINCIPLES ASSYMMETRIC KEY

BASIC TERMS

SYMMETRIC KEY

CONCLUSION

HISTORY OF CRYPTOGRAPHY
50 B.C. Julius Caesar uses cryptographic technique 1861 Union forces use a cipher during Civil War 1919 Germans develop the Enigma machine for encryption 1976 IBM develops DES 1976 Diffie – Hellman develop public key private key cryptography 1977 Rivest – Shamir – Adleman develop the RSA algorithm for public key / private key

BASIC TERMS

Keys are rules used in algorithms to convert a document into a secret The word cryptography document comes from the Greek words: Keys are of two types: Kryptos (secret) and graphin Symmetric (writing) Asymmetric Cryptography deals with creating A key is symmetric if the same key is documents that can be shared secretly over public communication used both for encryption and channels. decryption PlainText:-The original message before A key is asymmetric if different keys being transformed is called plain text. are used for encryption and decryption Cipher Text:-After the message is transformed is called cipher text. KEY

SYMMETRIC

ASYMMETRIC

The basic principle of this process is first the sender sends the plaintext then after encryption it transforms into ciphertext then after decryption at receiver end receiver gets the original plaintext message

WORKING & MACHINES
German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II to encrypt veryhighlevel general staff messages
The Enigma machine, used by Germany's military and civil authorities from the late 1920s through World War II..

Symmetric key
We use this crytography in our network security. It consists of traditional(character oriented) & modern(bit oriented) algorithms
SUBSTITUTION CIPHERS

TRADITIONAL CIPHERS

SHIFT CIPHERS

TRANSPOSITION CIPHERS

{THESE CAN ENCRYPT ONLY TEXT}
MODERN CIPHERS XOR CIPHERS ROTATION CIPHERS CAST-128 RC5 BLOWFISH

THESE CAN ENCRYPT TEXT,NUMBERS,GRAPHICS, AUDIO & VIDEO DATA,EG;DES&AES ALGORITHMS

Data Encryption Standard (DES)
The algorithm Uses blocks of size 64 bits. Key of length 56 (well, 64, but 8 bits are just check bits) Initial permutation IP. 16 rounds. Final permutation IP-1 (IP and IP-1 have minor cryptographic value). Small change in either the plaintext or the key produces a significant change in the ciphertext.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
AES is a symmetric-key algorithm
The AES cipher is specified as a number of repetitions of transformation rounds that convert the input plaintext into the final output of ciphertext. The number of cycles of repetition are as follows:10 cycles of repetition for 128 bit key. 12 cycles of repetition for 192 bit key. 14 cycles of repetition for 256 bit key. AES has a fixed block size of 128 bits and a key size of 128, 192, or 256 bits, whereas Rijndael can be specified with block and key sizes in any multiple of 32 bits, with a minimum of 128 bits. The blocksize has a maximum of 256 bits, but the keysize has no theoretical maximum.

ASYMMETRIC KEY
THE ASYMMETRIC CIPHER USES 2 KEYS:1 PRIVATE & 1 PUBLIC KEY 1)RSA Algorithm 2)DIFFIE-HELLMAN Algorithm

THE MOST COMMON PUBLIC KEY ALGORITHM IS RSA NAMED AFTER IT’S INVENTORS RIVEST,SHAMIR & ADLEMAN(RSA).IT USES 2 NOS.( e & d), AS THE PUBLIC & PRIVATE KEYS.IT IS A PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOSYSTEM THAT IS OFTEN USED TO ENCRYPT & DECRYPT SYMMETRIC KEYS DIFFIE-HELLMAN ON THE OTHER HAND WAS ORIGINALLY DESIGNED FOR KEY EXCHANGE

SECURITY SERVICES MESSAGE ENTITY

MESSAGE

ENTITY

CONFIDEN TIALITY

INTEGRITY

AUTHENTI CATION

NONREPU DIATION

AUTHENTICATION

NETWORK SECURITY
MESSAGE INTEGRITY DOCUMENT & FINGERPRINT
MESSAGE & MESSAGE DIGEST HASH FUNCTION HASH FUNCTION ALGORITHMS (SHA-1)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful