TRAINING

Dr.V.Mohanasundaram,M.B.A.,M.PhilL.,Ph.D., Professor and Head, Vivekanandha Institute of Engineering and Technology for Women, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode – 637 205

TRAINING
 Training

is typically part of the Human Resource Development.  The role of Human Resource department is to improve the organization’s effectiveness by providing employees with the knowledge, skills and attitudes that will improve their current or future job performance.

TRAINING
• Training ing is an “opportunity” for learning • Described as” providing the conditions in which people can learn effectively”. To learn is “ to gain knowledge, skill and ability” • Training cause learning, as a result of learning development occurs.

Training - Definition
 Training

is concerned with imparting and developing specific skills for a particular purpose.  Flippo – Training as “ the act of increasing the skills for a particular purpose”.

DEVELOPMENT
 Any

activity designed to improve the performance of existing managers and to provide for a planned growth of managers to meet future organizational requirements is management development  Development has a long term focus on preparing for future work responsibilities, while also increasing the capacities of employees to perform their current jobs

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
WHO? NON MANAGERIAL PERSONNEL TECHNICAL AND MECHANICAL MANAGERIAL PERSONNEL

WHAT?

CONCEPTUAL SKILLS

WHY?

FOR SPECIFIC TASK/JOB

FOR VARIOUS JOBS

WHEN

SHORT-TERM

LONG -TERM

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT CONTINUUM
 Manual

Skills  Specific job techniques  Techniques  Concepts  Philosophy

Objectives of Training

  

Orienting new employee to the organization and their job Helping employees perform their current jobs well Helping employees qualify for the future jobs Keeping employees informed Providing opportunities for personal development

EFFECTIVE TRAINING Benefits for Both Employees and Organization For the employees training creates;

Greater job satisfaction and morale among employees Improved self-esteem: Opportunity to advance in the organization Increased employee motivation

For the organization, training causes;

    

Increased productivity Higher levels of customer satisfaction:. Improved quality Increased innovation in strategies and products Reduced employee turnover. Enhanced company image

Training Process
 Organizational

objectives  Assessment of Training needs  Establishment of Training goals  Designing training programme  Implementation of training programme  Evaluation of result

TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS
WHY conducting training need analysis?  Increases the chances that the time and money spent on training would be spent wisely  Determines the benchmark for evaluation of training  Increases the motivation of participants  Provides an essential component in the implementation of the strategic plan  Allows trainer to present logical explanation, at the start of training about what is not happening now( but should be) on the job, and how the training will be useful  For most types of training, need analysis will increase the relevance effectiveness of training.

Methods of Conducting Need Analysis
 Advisory

Committee  Job Description and Job Specification  Work Sampling  Performance Appraisals:  Skill Tests:  Questionnaires  Exit Interviews:

TRAINING METHODS
TRAINING

COGNITIVE METHODS OFF THE JOB TRAINING

BEHAVIOURAL METHODS ON THE JOB TRAINING

We Learn 1% through taste 1.5% through touch 3.5% through smell 11% through hearing 83% through sight

We Remember 10% of what we read 20% of what we hear 30% of what we see 50% of what we see and hear 80% of what we say 90% of what we say as we act
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Cognitive Methods
 Cognitive

methods provide verbal or written information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, or provide the rules for how to do something. These stimulate learning through their impact on cognitive processes and are associated most closely with changes in knowledge and attitudes. These types of methods can also be called as off-the-job training methods.

Off-job training - Advantages
    

A specialist instructor enables delivery of high quality training. Wider range of facilities and equipment are available. The trainee can learn the job in planned stages. It is free from the pressures and distractions of company life. It is easier to calculate the cost of off-job training because it is more self-contained

Cross-fertilisation of ideas between different companies.

Off-job training - Disadvantages

Can result in transfer of learning difficulties when a trainee changes from training equipment to production equipment.  No training can be entirely off-job as some aspects of the task can only be learned by doing them in the normal production setting, with its own customs and network of personal relationships.  Can be more expensive.  Carrying out the training

Behavioral Methods
 Behavioral

methods allow trainee to practice behaviour in real or simulated fashion. They stimulate learning through behaviour an are best for skill development and attitude change. These methods can be called as on-the-job training methods.

On-job training - Advantages
 Tailor-made course

content with use of REAL company situations/examples.  It is usually less expensive than off-job training  Learning will take place using the equipment which will be actually used  Trainees acclimatize more rapidly

On-job training - Disadvantages



Possibility of poor instruction and insufficient time. Trainee may be exposed to bad work practices. A large amount of spoiled work and scrap material may be produced. Valuable equipment may be damaged. Training takes place under production conditions that are stressful, i.e. noisy, busy, confusing and exposing the trainee to comments by other workers.

To be effective, training method should



Motivate the trainee to improve performance Provide for active participation by the trainee Encourage positive transfer from training to job Provide timely feedback on the trainee’s performance Be structured from simple to specific problems

Orientation
 Orientation

is the formal introduction of the new employees to the organization and to the job. Orientation answers “what” questions new employees have on the first day of the work.  Orientation is a specific taype of training which is given to the new employee

Why Orientation Is Important
 Orientation

explains basics – often provided in an employee handbook  Rules and policies are often discussed  Makes new employee feel at ease  Describes the organization – the big picture  Defines expected work behavior  Socializes new employee in company’s ways

Case Study
Small Group Activity/ Discussion

Demonstration

Role Play

Lecture

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COGNITIVE METHODS OFF THE JOB TRAINING METHODS
 The

Lecture  Computer Based Training  Vestibule Training: Simulation  Business Games  Case Studies  Role Playing  Demonstration

LECTURES

The Lecture

The lecture is best used to create a general understanding of a topic or to influence attitudes through education about a topic.  The most common form of off-the-job training is the oral presentation of information to an audience.  Convey information, theories or principles  Depends on trainer for content

Merits

Lecture

Uses  Introduce a subject  Bring Facts/statistics  Overview  Large groups  Inexpensive
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Demerits

Demonstration
 Show

and explain an activity  Provides a model  Learn by doing Uses  Model a behaviour  Illustrate points  Create a visual impact
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Computer Based Training

Computer based training can be defined as that any training that occurs through the use of computer. E- Learning new ways of delivering training programs are constantly being developed in the attempts to match the high speed at which businesses are moving. One of the new methods of delivering training programs is with online .

Vestibule Training: Simulation
 Vestibule

Training involves the virtual duplication of work environment in an off-site setting.  Simulation exercises place the trainee in an artificial environment that closely imitates actual working conditions where the trainer demonstrates on the same kind of machine and using the same procedures that trainees will use on the job.

Merits of Simulation
 Creates

interest in the trainees and motivates them.
type of training is very useful to avoid any costly errors or the destruction of valuable resources.

 This

Demerits of Simulation
 This

type of training is usually involve huge cost.

Business Games

Business games are another form of simulations that attempt to indicate the way in an industry, company, or subunit of company functions. Generally, they are based on a set of relationships, rules, and principles derived from the theory or research.  In this type of training, participants learn how to deal with a variety of issues in a simulated business environment. Trainees are provided with information describing a situation and are asked to make decisions about what to do. (e.g., develop leadership skills, strengthen executive and upper management skills)

Case Studies
 Details

of series of events, either real or hypothetical, which take place in a business environment.  When this method of training used, participants asked to sort through data provided in the case to identify the principal issues and then propose solutions to these issues

Case Study
 Analysis

of a hypothetical but realistic situation  No “right answers”  Participant devises his/her own solution Uses  Discuss typical situations  Recognize multiple approaches  Safe environment

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Role Playing
 The

purpose of this method is to give participants a chance to experience such situations in a controlled setting.  Trainees are provided with a description of the context usually a topic area, a general description of a situation, a description of their roles, and the problem they each face.

Role-Play
 Participants

act out a hypothetical situation  Everyone becomes part of the scenario  Participants bring their own experience to role

Uses  Skill building  Affects feelings and attitudes  Rehearsal preview  Pushes for new solutions
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OTHER METHODS
 Discussion

method

 Field

Trip  Brain storming

 Discussion

is defined as a group work using different instructional techniques to attain predetermined objectives.  Discussion methods are effective in getting the trainees to think constructively.

Advantages

Interest level is high in well planned discussions.  Trainees can express own opinions freely and hear those of others  Trainees participation is high and hence acceptance of decisions and solutions is also high.

Disadvantages
 Demands

highly skilled and well informed instructors.  Quality of discussion depends on thoroughness of preparation.  Effective only for small groups

FIELD TRIP

A fieldtrip or fieldwork or training in the field is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment.

The purpose of the trip is usually observation for education, non-experimental research or to provide students with experiences outside their everyday activities.

PURPOSES OF FIELD TRIP
 To
 To

provide real life situations

serve as a preview of lesson and for gathering instructional materials.

 To

serve as a mean to develop positive attitudes, values and specific skills.

ADVANTAGES
 Field

trips provide accurate information about objects, process and systems in the real settings.
enthusiasm for field trips can be effectively transformed to effective learning. trips provide students the opportunities to utilize all the senses for learning.

 Students’

 Field

DISADVANTAGES
 Time

consuming
planning required can be a problem

 Careful

 Transportation  It

is risky for the management.

Brain storming A sudden clever Plan or idea, violent disturbance of the mind.

How can Brainstorming help your organization
 Bring
 Help

out new ideas

to create synergism
possibility thinking

 Encourage

Ways to create effective Brainstorming
Four Rules of Brainstorming
1. 2. 3. 4.

Stress quantity over quality Freewheeling should be encouraged Suspend judgment Ignore seniority

Ways to create effective Brainstorming
 Create

an effective atmosphere

Leave work premises Take routine away from the situation

Importance of Brainstorming
 Increases

ability to figure out different ways which to cure a problem opportunity for synergism within a company

 Allows

Group Brainstorming
1.
2. 3. 4.

Evaluation of ideas not permitted Encourage wild ideas Quantity of ideas preferred over quality Build on ideas of others

BEHAVIOURAL METHODS ON THE JOB TRAINING

On-the-job training places employees in actual work situation and makes them immediately productive.  On-the-job training involve learning by doing, relies on demonstration and coaching.  This form helps particularly to develop the occupational skills necessary to manage an organization, to fully understand the organization’s products and services and how they are developed and carried out.

BEHAVIOURAL METHODS ON THE JOB TRAINING


   

Job Rotation Coaching Apprenticeship Training Internship JIT – Job Instruction Training Coaching and Mentoring

Job Rotation

Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job or project to project within an organization, as a way to achieve many different human resources objectives.  Excellent job rotation program can decrease the training cost while also increasing the impact of training, because job rotation is a hands on experience. Make individuals more self-motivated, flexible, adaptable, innovative, eager to learn and able to communicate effectively and better understanding of strategic issues.

Coaching
 Coaching

is the process of one-on-one guidance and instruction to improve knowledge, skills and work performance.  Coaching is becoming a very popular means of development, and often includes working one-on-one with the learner to conduct a needs assessment, set major goals to accomplish, develop an action plan, and support the learner to accomplish the plan.

Apprenticeship Training
 Apprenticeship

is another form of on-thejob training, is one of the oldest forms of training. Apprenticeship are designed to provide planned, practical instruction over a significant time span. Apprenticeship were the major approach to learning a craft.

Internship
 Internship

are opportunities for students to get real world experience, often during summer vacations as a part of fulfilling requirements for degree programs. Internship are offered usually by organization to college students wanting to find work experience. The internship offer precious, real life job experience and the organization often get skilled, highly dedicated service.

JIT

   

JIT is also known as training through step by step involves listing of all necessary steps involved in the job performance with a sequential arrangement of all steps. Providing job information to the trainees Positioning the trainees at work place Allow the trainees to try out work performance Encouraging the trainees to ask questions about job performance and satisfying them with further explanation

COACHING AND MENTORING

Coaching and mentoring, also involve one-on-one instruction. Coaching typically occurs between an employee and that person‘s supervisor and focuses on examining employee performance and taking actions to maintain effective performance and correct performance problems.  In mentoring a senior manager is paired with a more junior employee for the purpose of giving support, helping the employee learn the ropes, and preparing the employee for increasing responsibility

On-the-job training is clearly useful method for skill development, since trainees implementing their knowledge in the actual job conditions. Transfer of training naturally occurs. Because employees getting onthe-job training are actually working, not being trained in classroom, it has clear cost advantages, if it is done effectively. Productivity will be lower during the training, because neither the trainee nor the trainer will be producing full capacity. But it is real that on-the-job training method is really cost effective method over simulations, games and computer based training modules.

Training For Special Purposes
 Global

business training samples include:

  

 Language

Executive etiquette for global transactions Cross-cultural technology transfer International protocol and presentation Business basics for the foreign executive

training

Training For Special Purposes
 Diversity

training  Better cross-cultural sensitivity  Results examples:
 

Improving technical skills Socialization

Lifelong Learning
 Lifelong

learning provides continuing training from basic remedial skills to advanced decision-making techniques throughout an employee’s career

New & old skills alike are learned & updated continuously

Managerial Development

Management development is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills with an aim to enhance the future performance of the company itself

Managerial On-the-job Training
 Job

rotation  Coaching/understudy approach

Managerial Off-the-job Training
 The

case study method  Games  Seminars  University programs  Role playing  In house development

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