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BUMI dan UNIVERSE ANATOMI BUMI
Formation of the Earth
From the Big Bang to Early Planets
PLANET DALAM SISTEM TATASURYA .PLANET.
Dense and made of Rock and Iron Mercury Venus Earth Mars .TERRESTRIAL PLANETS .Small.
Large. Low Density.JOVIAN PLANETS . and Made of Gas and Ice Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune .
Terrestrial (Inner) Planets • Mercury. Venus. Earth. Mars – Rocky and relatively small – Mercury and Venus too hot for life – Mars may have had life long ago • Mars Exploration – Multiple missions – Found evidence of water .
Uranus. Neptune – Layered structure – No solid surface .Jovian (Outer) Planets Jupiter. Saturn.
and Meteors Asteroids Small rocky bodies Orbit sun Asteroid belt Comets Dirty snowballs Highly elongated orbits Stardust and Deep Impact missions Meteors and Meteorites Meteor showers Original solar system material .Asteroids. Comets.
Ca) oceanic crust – Solid felsic (rich in feldspars. Fe.Earth‘s Layered Structure • By 4 billion years ago Earth had become a layered structure consisting of a – Solid Ni-Fe-rich inner core – Molten silica-contaminated Ni-Fe outer core – Solid ultramafic (rich in Mg and Fe) lower mantle – Solid ultramafic (rich in Mg and Fe) upper mantle – Plastic (almost molten) asthenosphere – Solid mafic (rich in Mg. silica) continental crust .
5-90 km thick – continental and oceanic • Mantle – composed largely of peridotite – dark. dense igneous rock – rich in iron and magnesium • Core – iron and a small amount of nickel .EARTH’S INTERIOR LAYERS • Crust .
Earth’s Interior Layers • Crust .5-90 km thick – continental and oceanic • Mantle – composed largely of peridotite – dark. dense igneous rock – rich in iron and magnesium • Core – iron and a small amount of nickel • Lithosphere – solid upper mantle and crust • Asthenosphere – part of upper mantle – behaves plastically and slowly flows .
Earth’s Interior Layers • Lithosphere – solid upper mantle and crust – broken into plates that move over the asthenosphere • Asthenosphere – part of upper mantle – behaves plastically and slowly flows .
Earth’s Crust • continental (20-90 km thick) – density 2.7 g/cm3 – contains Si. Al • oceanic (5-10 km thick) – density 3.0 g/cm3 – composed of basalt .
Plate Tectonic Theory • Lithosphere is broken into individual pieces called plates • Plates move over the asthenosphere – as a result of underlying convection cells .
T C C D D PERGERAKAN LEMPENG LITOSFERIK Lempeng Indo-Australia 6 – 7 cm/th .
Sea-Floor Spreading .
RIFTING OF PANGAEA ANIMATION .
Deep Ocean Seafloor spreading center Seamounts Abyssal Hills (linear hills) .
Divergent Continental-Continental Plate Boundary .
SUBDUCTION ZONE . The location where sinking of a plate occurs is called a subduction zone.SUBDUCTION • When one plate sinks (is subducted) under another.
Collision of India and Asia Produced the Himalayas .
TYPES OF PLATE BOUNDARIES • Divergent – Plates are moving away from each other • Convergent – Plates are moving toward each other • Transform – Plates are sliding past each other .
Divergent Boundaries • Process Involved: Sea Floor Spreading • Characteristic Features: – Mid Ocean Ridges – Rift Valleys • Examples: – Mid-Atlantic Ridge – East Pacific Rise .
Convergent Boundaries • Processes Involved: – Ocean-ocean subduction – Ocean-continent subduction – Continent-continent collision • Characteristic Features: – – – – Deep sea trenches Volcanic island arcs Continental mountain chains Earthquake activity • Examples: – Islands of Indonesia – Mariana Islands .