This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
– no movement
– little movement
– more movement
• • • • Bony Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial
Structural Classification Table 9–2 .
binds teeth to sockets (periodontal ligament) • Synchondrosis . epiphyseal lines of long bones .epiphyseal cartilage of long bones & b/t vertebrosternal ribs and sternum • Synostosis .4 Types of Synarthrotic Joints • Sutures .bound by dense fibrous connective tissue. found only in skull • Gomphosis .fused bones.
2 Types of Amphiarthroses • Syndesmosis: – bones connected by ligaments • Symphysis: – bones separated by fibrocartilage .
Synovial Joints (Diarthroses) • Also called freely moveable joints • Lined with synovial membrane • Articular cartilages (hyaline) pad articulating surfaces within articular capsules & prevent bones from touching • Smooth surfaces lubricated by synovial fluid .
Nutrient distribution 3. Lubrication 2. Shock absorption .Functions of Synovial Fluid 1.
Synovial Joints: Accessory Structures • Cartilages .ligaments with torn collagen fibers • Tendons . protect articular cartilages • Ligaments .superficial to the joint capsule.cushion the joint: – fibrocartilage meniscus (articular disc) • Fat pads .support. strengthen joints – Sprain .attach to muscles around joint • Bursae .Pockets of synovial fluid that cushion areas where tendons or ligaments rub .
Synovial Joints: Range of Motion • • • • Nonaxial – slipping movements only Uniaxial – movement in one plane Biaxial – movement in two planes Multiaxial – movement in or around all three planes Joint movements • To be read for lab…DO NOT FORGET! .
Linear Motion • Also called gliding • 2 surfaces slide past each other: – between carpal or tarsal bones .
Flexion/Extension •Angular motion in A/P plane •Flexion reduces angle between elements •Extension Increases angle between elements Figure 9–3a .
c .Abduction/Adduction •Angular motion in frontal plane •Abduction moves away from longitudinal axis •Adduction moves toward longitudinal axis Figure 9–3b.
Circumduction • Circular motion without rotation • Angular motion Figure 9–3d .
Rotation • Left or right rotation • Medial rotation (inward rotation): – rotates toward axis • Lateral rotation (outward rotation): – rotates away from axis .
radius over ulna • Supination: – forearm in anatomical position .Pronation and Supination • Pronation: – rotates forearm.
Inversion and Eversion • Inversion: – twists sole of foot medially • Eversion: – twists sole of foot laterally Figure 9–5a .
Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion • Dorsiflexion: – flexion at ankle (lifting toes) • Plantar flexion: – extension at ankle (pointing toes) Figure 9–5b .
Opposition • Thumb movement toward fingers or palm (grasping) Figure 9–5c .
Protraction and Retraction • Protraction: – moves anteriorly – in the horizontal plane (pushing forward) • Retraction: – opposite of protraction – moving anteriorly (pulling back) Figure 9–5d .
Elevation and Depression • Elevation: – moves in superior direction (up) • Depression: – moves in inferior direction (down) .
Lateral Flexion • Bends vertebral column from side to side Figure 9–5f .
interphalangeal Ellipsoidal – Occ/C1. SI Pivot – atlas/axis. radius to carpals Saddle – trapezium to 1st metacarpal Ball & socket – shoulder/hip . knee. radioulnar Hinge – elbow. TMJ.6 subtypes of synovial joints • • • • • • Gliding – intercarpals.
• Plane joints – Articular surfaces are essentially flat – Allow only slipping or gliding movements – Only examples of nonaxial joints • Hinge joints – Cylindrical projections of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another – Motion is along a single plane – Uniaxial joints permit flexion and extension only – Examples: elbow and interphalangeal joints .
• Pivot joints – bone protrudes into a “sleeve. and the proximal radioulnar joint • Condyloid joints – Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another – Both articular surfaces are oval – Biaxial joints permit all angular motions – Examples: radiocarpal (wrist) joints. and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints .” or ring. composed of bone (and possibly ligaments) of another – Only uniaxial movement allowed – Examples: joint between the axis and the dens.
• Saddle Joints – Similar to condyloid joints but allow greater movement – Each articular surface has both a concave and a convex surface – Example: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb • Ball-and-Socket Joints – A spherical or hemispherical head of one bone articulates with a cuplike socket of another – Multiaxial joints permit the most freely moving synovial joints – Examples: shoulder and hip joints .
Intervertebral Articulations • C2 to L5 spinal vertebrae articulate: – at inferior and superior articular processes (gliding joints) – between adjacent vertebral bodies (symphyseal joints) Figure 9–7 .
gelatinous core that absorbs shocks .Intervertebral Discs • Intervertebral discs: – pads of fibrocartilage that separate vertebral bodies • Anulus fibrosus: – tough outer layer that attaches disc to vertebrae • Nucleus pulposus: – elastic.
Interspinous ligament: 5. Ligamentum flavum: – – connects laminae connects spinous processes 4. Ligamentum nuchae: connects tips of spinous processes (C7 to sacrum) continues supraspinous ligament (C7 to skull) . Posterior longitudinal ligament: 3. Anterior longitudinal ligament: – – connects anterior bodies connects posterior bodies 2. Supraspinous ligament: – – 6.6 Intervertebral Ligaments 1.
Damage to Intervertebral Discs • Slipped disc: – bulge in anulus fibrosus – invades vertebral canal • Herniated disc: – nucleus pulposus breaks through anulus fibrosus – presses on spinal cord or nerves .
b .The Knee Joint Figure 9–12a.
The Knee Joint • 2 femur–tibia articulations: – 1 at medial and lateral condyles – 1 between patella and patellar surface of femur .
7 Ligaments of the Knee Joint • Patellar ligament (anterior) • 2 popliteal ligaments (posterior) • Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (inside joint capsule) • Tibial collateral ligament (medial) • Fibular collateral ligament (lateral) • Medial and lateral menisci: fibrocartilage pads – at femur–tibia articulations to cushion and stabilize joint & give lateral support .
Sprains • The ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn • Partially torn ligaments slowly repair themselves • Completely torn ligaments require prompt surgical repair Strains •The muscles or tendons are stretched or torn •Healing generally better than with a sprain. however it depends on the location of the strain with relationship of the joint .
excessive fluid may be aspirated • Tendonitis – Inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse – Symptoms and treatment are similar to bursitis .Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions • Bursitis – An inflammation of a bursa. usually caused by a blow or friction – Symptoms are pain and swelling – Treated with anti-inflammatory drugs.
and joint swelling • Acute forms are caused by bacteria and are treated with antibiotics • Chronic forms include osteoarthritis. stiffness. rheumatoid arthritis. and gouty arthritis . • Symptoms – pain.Arthritis • More than 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints • Most widespread crippling disease in the U.S.
form bone spurs. enlarge. cartilage is destroyed more quickly than it is replaced • The exposed bone ends thicken. knees. and hips . and is probably related to the normal aging process • As one ages. knuckles. often called “wear-andtear” arthritis • AKA: Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD) • Affects women more than men • 85% of all Americans develop OA • More prevalent in the aged. fingers.Osteoarthritis (OA) • Most common chronic arthritis. and restrict movement • Joints most affected are the cervical and lumbar spine.
but may occur at any age • Signs and symptoms include joint tenderness. muscle atrophy. inflammatory. osteoporosis. anemia. and cardiovascular problems – The course of RA is marked with exacerbations and remissions . with an insidious onset • Usually arises between the ages of 40 to 50.Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) • Chronic. autoimmune disease of unknown cause.
and glucocorticoids . followed by an inflammation response • Typically. the bone ends fuse and immobilize the joint • Treatment – colchicine.Gouty Arthritis • Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues. gouty arthritis affects the joint at the base of the great toe • In untreated gouty arthritis. nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.