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Unfreezing- ready to consider changes and behavior. Problem diagnosis- forces supporting changes, and working against the changed needs are identified and presented. Goal setting- desired change are stated specifically. New behavior- individual learn and practice knowledge and skills newly acquired which is desirable. Refreezing- newly learned found to be beneficial and assimilated to individuals ongoing framework of knowledge and skills, attitude and behavior.
Classroom application Attending to the characteristics of the skills and matching these to ones abilities facilities the learning of such skills Observing and imitating a model make learning easy Guide the individual verbally and physically in the initial stages of learning Provide more practice Provide feedbacks about ach performance Encourage learner to evaluate own performance .
Authoritarian Confrontive Direct Dominator Formal Informative Judgmental Prescriptive .
democratic Supportive Indirect Interactive Informal Inquiry Non-judgemental Reflective .
and can be associate with constant practice and if so make a habit. . Learning is interactive. Learning is basic.is fundamentally a kind of relationship between S-R.only when learning interact to the stimuli. Learning is developmental› As individual develop and grows he acquires various skills and knowledge essential to his success in his adjustment during different stages of development.
We have to give varied activities to our students for hands on minds on learning— Learning by doing The more senses that are involved in learning. Respect. Psychological attitude of the student and the teacher himself. A non –threatening atmosphere enhances learning. Learning is an ongoing process. Learning is meaningful when it is connected to student prior knowledge. Physical include classroom structure. the more and the better the learning. . auditory and bodily kinesthetic. 3.1. 2. 2. ands cleanliness. Used multi-sensory instructional materials. Visual. ventilation. 4. 3. Emotion has the power to increase retention and learning. Use or maximize the use of different learning style of the students. 1. 5.
Good teaching considers learners varied learning styles. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information.6. Multiple intelligences by Howard Gardner . 7.
(pictures to present a story) pitch. action gestures.Method – devices or materials used. (high . and Technique – art or skills in performance. flash cards. Teaching aids or tool to facilitate instruction make teaching clearer and more meaningful. (telling method to tell a story) objects. interesting. changing facial expression and varying timbre) Devices – pictures.
Methods of teaching Two types of teaching approach •Deductive •Lecture •Expository •demonstration Direct (DLED) • Inductive • Discovery • Reflective • Problem-solving • Project • Laboratory • Inquiry • Meta cognition Experiential/ Indirect (RID2PLIM) .
.instructional or in the form of modules.Strategy of presenting materials to be learned step by step. Programmed instructional materials are usually self. Uses in math and English.
or generalization. principle. truth. This is a study of specific cases and ends up with a generalization. One may arrive at a fact.Inductive • a discovery method. It is a process of reasoning from the particular to general Steps I2PCGA •Preparation •Recall •Motivation •Presentation •Cases are presented •Comparison and Abstraction •Common element deduce •Generalization •Fact from no. 3 is stated as generalization •Application •Test child understanding .
process of reasoning from given facts to particular. or principles is presented • Verification • Trying out generalization • Application • exercises . definition. It begins with law. then cases are studied to verify generalization Steps PVA • Presentation • Generalization. rule.Deductive • lesson start with generalization.
activity accompanied by enjoyment Problem project.master some intellectual difficulty Learning projectacquisition of a skill or some knowledge . planned and carried to completion involving the use of physical material.Project • Significant practice. practical unit of activity of problematic nature.to do something Enjoyment project. Steps 2P2E • Purposing • Goal of project are determined • Planning • Student and teacher activity • Executing • Carrying out the activity as planned by the class • Evaluating • Finished products are displayed and judge by both student and teacher Types of project method Construction project.
Herbatian (herbart) •apperception • Preparation • Presentation • Comparison and abstraction • Generalization • Fixing skills Steps PPCGF .
Morrisonian (morison) •A week lesson plan used for sibika and hekasi social studies Steps EPAOE • Exploration • Presentation • Assimilation • Organization • Evaluation .
teacher sets the mind of the student for discussion • Work period – supervised work period • Culminating Activities. Orientation. motivation. Steps IWC • Introductory step • a. explaining. presenting illustrative materials or exhibition of work. or application by experimental method.it can be reporting.determination of work to be done. . It is experimentation. Nature and purpose of work are carefully explained. observation. Teacher gives necessary direction through guide sheet and laboratory manual • b.Laboratory •Teaching procedure dealing with first hand experiences regarding materials or facts obtained from investigation or experimentation.
Steps PSHDC • Preparation • Motivation • Statement of the problem • Hypothesis • Demonstration • Conclusion .• Teacher does the Demonstration experiment before the class.
show whether the student understood the explanation or not.Expository • Explaining or interpreting. Good for difficult subject and topics. • Presentation.devices maybe use such as analogies. Steps A/oPA • Approach/ orientation. stories models charts diagram. It is used when there is much need for explaining. .mind setting by recalling past experiences related to new lesson. • Application.
completion. Attention devices maybe use • Presentation of the body of the lectureimportant point should be presented. culminationsummary and reorganization has been said at the end of the lecture . Symposium Steps IPC • Introduction to the lecture.idea of what the lecture is all about. Use for college • b. Seminar • c.Lecture • Teaching procedure for clarifying a major idea cast in the form of question and answer • a. Less important come later • Conclusion. closure.
Discovery • Used when thought are put to perceive something that the learner has not known before and gets directly involved in learning Steps •Similar to inductive method .
Inquiry Steps (StInCon) • Used when students are confronted with puzzling situation and the students are led to investigate the problem •Statement of the problem •Investigation •conclusion . decisions.Reflective • An ongoing process that enables the learners to continuously learn from their own experiences through thoughtful analysis of their own actions. and beliefs.
Steps PDMET • Planning • Deciding • Monitoring • Evaluating • Terminating .MetaCognition • Used when student are trained to become sensitive in the learning procedures.
Problem Solving • Is used when a problem is felt in a situation that needs to removed by careful deliberation and study of analyzing the problem. • Testing and judging hypothesis • Formulating generalization • Evaluation . summarizing and interpreting data. Steps RFPGOTFE • Raising the problem • Formulating hypothesis • Planning situation • Gathering data • Organizing.
open. 1 convergent. 2.a. high –level questioning. divergent.one best answer b. 2.ended HOTS . low –level questioning – emphasizes memory and recall of informaton b.deal with complex and abstraction a. 1.
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