• Evolved around 114million years ago • Known as 'mangals', 'coastal woodlands', 'tidal forests' etc. • Indo-Malaysian area is considered as the cradle of evolution of mangrove ecosystem • The richest mangrove communities occur in tropical and sub-tropical areas
(between 30°N and 30°S latitudes)

• Mangroves are found practically in almost all the continents. • The best mangroves are found in Asia • The total area of mangroves in India is about 6. km . the Arctic and Antarctic. excepting Europe.740 sq.

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prop roots for stability and anchorage. Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata .1. Proximal Zone (Front mangroves) • This zone is towards water fro • Specially adapted with stilt roots. • Eg.

littoralis. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. B. L. Middle Zones (Mid mangroves) • Eg.2. Lumnitzera racemosa. Cylindrica. Ceriops tagal and Aegiceras corniculatum • knee roots or bent roots as a special adoption .

3.Distal zone (Back Mangroves) • Excoecaris agallocha. . Heritiera littoralis and Xylocarnus spp • Salinity is on lower side.

VIVIPARY • Embryo develops continuously while attached to the parent tree & during dispersal. • the Rhizophoraceae family (Rhizophora.1. Bruguiera and Ceriops species) . (1-3 yrs) • In buoyant sea water they lie horizontally and move quickly • On fresher water they turn vertically.

• 2. DISPERSAL BY MEANS OF WATER .

• Zooplankton • Insects • Butterflies and moths • Molluscs and Crustaceans • Mangrove Crab • Fiddler Crab • Telescopium telescopium • Mud skippers • Fish .

• Reptiles • • • • Estuarine or Saltwater Crocodile Sea Turtles Water Monitor Lizard Birds Mammals Royal Bengal Tiger • Crab eating macaque .

• Buffer Zone between the land and sea. ecological disasters and as protector of shorelines. • Protect the land from erosion. • Breeding and nursery grounds for a variety of marine animals. • Play an invaluable role as nature's shield against cyclones. .

fuel and fodder.• Harbour a variety of lifeforms like invertebrates. fish. • Main source of income generation for shoreline communities like fisherfolk. . reptiles. birds and even mammals like tigers. amphibians. which is fast diminishing. • Good source of timber. • Save the marine diversity.

• Purify the water by absorbing impurities and harmful heavy metals and help us to breathe a clean air by absorbing pollutants in the air. • Potential source for recreation and tourism. .

• Land reclamations for construction activity. aquaculture. agriculture. tourism • Industrial and domestic pollution • Port development .

• Dumping of all kinds of waste and debris • Deforestation for fuel wood • Over harvesting of marine resources .

• Be vigilant towards activities happening in your surrounding areas and keep an open eye to note destruction in mangrove areas.• Get acquainted with the mangroves near your area. . • Complain to the local authorities in case you observe any violation.

(Maharashtra Tree Felling Act and Environment Protection Act. which are working specifically for the conservation of mangroves.) • Join organizations like the Mangrove Society of India.• complain to the Forest Department or to the police. .

• Most importantly try to create awareness among as many people as possible. • Participate in scientific plantations of mangroves flora at all possible areas. .

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