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Past Future

Present

Using Adverb Clauses to Show
Time Relations
By: Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://www.kau.edu.sa/SBANJER
http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com

Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 1
Adverb clause or Main Clause or
Dependent clause Adverb
Independent clause
Clauses
PAST

PAST PAST PROGRESSIVE and
PAST PERFECT

PAST PERFECT PAST

PRESENT PRESENT Tense
FUTURE s
FUTURE PRESENT

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AFTER
 ✔✔✔✔✔
After she graduates,
 A present tense,
tense is
used in this
she will get a job.
adverb clause of
time.
 XXXXXX
 Future tense is not
used in this adverb
clause.
Adverb clause or Main Clause or
Dependent clause Independent clause
PRESENT FUTURE

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WHEN = At that time

 When I arrived, he was talking on the phone.
 When I got there, he had already left.

Adverb clause Main Clause or
or Dependent Independent
clause clause
PAST PAST
PROGRESSIVE
PRESENT PAST
PERFECT

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WHEN = At that time

 When it began to rain, I stood under a tree.
 When I see him tomorrow, I will ask him.

Adverb clause Main Clause or
or Dependent Independent
clause clause

PAST PAST
PRESENT FUTURE
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WHILE, AS = During that time.

• While I was walking home, it began to rain.
• As I was walking home, it began to rain.
Past progressive,
progressive
is used in this
adverb clause of
time.

Adverb clause or Main Clause or
Dependent clause Independent clause
PAST
PAST
PROGRESSIVE

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BY THE TIME
 By the time he arrived,
arrived she had already left.
left
 By the time he comes,
comes she will have already left.
left

Adverb clause Main Clause or
or Dependent Independent
clause clause

PAST PAST
PERFECT
PRESENT FUTURE

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SINCE

 Since = From that time to the present
 The present perfect is used in the
main clause.

• I haven’t seen him since he left this morning.
• I’ve known her ever since I was a child.
Adverb clause Main Clause or
or Dependent Independent
clause clause

PAST PRESENT
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UNTIL,
TILL

 We stayed there until we finished our lesson.
 We stayed there till we finished our lesson.

Adverb clause Main Clause or
or Dependent Independent
clause clause

PAST PAST

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AS SOON AS, ONCE
 As soon as it starts raining, we will leave.
leave
 Once I have a chance, I will throw you an ice ball.

Adverb clause or Main Clause or
Dependent clause Independent clause
PRESENT FUTURE

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Whenever = Every time

 Whenever I see her, I say hello.
 Every time I see her, I say hello.

Adverb clause or Main Clause or
Dependent clause Independent clause
PRESENT PRESENT
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THE FIRST TIME,…. etc.,
THE LAST TIME… etc.,
THE NEXT TIME,…. etc.
 The first time that I went to
New York, I went to an opera.
 I saw two plays the last time
(that) I went to New York.
 The next time (that) I go to
New York, I’m going to see a
ballet.

Adverb clause Main Clause or
or Dependent Independent
clause clause

PAST PAST
PRESENT FUTURE
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