Software Engineering by MR Kashif Rizwan


Presentation Title
Rational Unified Process - UML (including Class Diagram, Use Case Diagram, Collaboration diagram)

Syed Abbas Shamim Rizvi Ep#086020

Introduction to RUP

• What is RUP? • RUP Phases
– Inception – Elaboration – Construction – Transition


What is RUP?
• Shows how you can apply best practices of software engineering, and how you can use tools to automate your software engineering process • Rational Unified Process is created to be:
– Iterative incremental
• Risks, changes, continuous integration, etc.

– Architecture centric
• Understand the purpose, skeleton of the system, foster reuse, technical risks, etc.

– Use case driven
• Develop use-case by use-case, traceability, etc.

• RUP uses UML

Best Practices
• Develop iteratively
– In a waterfall lifecycle, you cannot verify whether you have stayed clear of a risk until late in the lifecycle – In an iterative lifecycle, you will select what increment to develop in an iteration based on a list of key risks

• Benefits:
– – – – – Accommodating changes Mitigating risks Increasing reuse Learning Higher quality


Inception Goals
• Establishing the project's software scope and boundary conditions, including:
– – – – an operational vision acceptance criteria what is intended to be in the product what is not.

• Discriminating
– the critical use cases of the system – the primary scenarios of operation that will drive the major design trade-offs.

• Exhibiting, and maybe demonstrating, at least one candidate architecture against some of the primary scenarios


Inception Goals (Cont.)
• Estimating
– the overall cost – and schedule for the entire project – and more detailed estimates for the elaboration phase that will immediately follow

• Estimating potential risks (the sources of unpredictability) • Preparing the supporting environment for the project.

Inception Essential Activities
• • • • • Formulating the scope of the project. Planning and preparing a business case. Synthesizing a candidate architecture. Preparing the environment for the project. …


Inception Artifacts
• Vision: The project's core requirements, key features, and main constraints are documented. Stakeholders … • Glossary: defines important terms used by the project. • Business Case: provides the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not this project is worth investing in. • Software Development Plan: all information required to manage the project. (Risk, time and durations, needed tools, changes, documentations) • Use-case model: a model of the system's intended functions and its environment, and serves as a contract between the customer and the developers.


Elaboration Goals
• To ensure stability of:
– Architecture; – Requirements; – Plans.

• To be able to predictably determine:
– Cost; – Schedule.

• To address all significant risks of the project, and to ensure all of them will be mitigated. • To establish a baseline architecture
– Derived from addressing the architectural significant scenarios


Elaboration Goals (Cont.)
• To produce an evolutionary prototype • Verify baseline architecture
– Demonstrate that the architecture will support requirements of the system at a reasonable cost and time.

• To establish a supporting environment.


Elaboration Activities
• Defining, validating the baseline architecture. • Refining the Vision. • Creating detail of iteration plans for the construction phase. • Refining the development case and putting in place the development environment • Refining the architecture and selecting components.


Elaboration Artifacts
• Software Architecture Document: provides a comprehensive architectural overview of the system, using a number of different architectural views to depict different aspects of the system. • Prototypes: One or more executable architectural prototypes have been created to explore critical functionality and architecturally significant scenarios. • Design model: an object model describing the realization of use cases, and serves as an abstraction of the implementation model and its source code. • Data model: a subset of the implementation model which describes the logical and physical representation of persistent data in the system. • Testing Mechanisms and refining previous Iteration’s artifacts.

Construction Goals
• Minimizing development costs by optimizing resources and avoiding unnecessary scrap and rework. • Achieving adequate quality as rapidly as practical • Achieving useful versions (alpha, beta, and other test releases) • Completing the analysis, design, development and testing of all required functionality. • To decide if the software, the sites, and the users are all ready for the application to be deployed. • To achieve some degree of parallelism in the work of development teams.


Construction Activities
• Resource management, control and process optimization • Complete component development and testing against the defined evaluation criteria • Assessment of evaluation of product releases against acceptance criteria for the vision.

Construction Artifacts
• The System: The executable system itself, ready to begin "beta" testing. • Training materials: the material that is used in training programs or courses to assist the end-users with product use, operation and/or maintenance. • Testing results and refining previous Iteration’s artifacts.

Transition Goals
• Beta testing to validate the new system against user expectations • Beta testing and parallel operation relative to a legacy system that it's replacing • Training of users and maintainers • Roll-out to the marketing, distribution and sales forces • Tuning activities such as bug fixing, enhancement for performance and usability

Transition Goals (Cont.)
• Achieving user self-supportability • Achieving stakeholder concurrence that deployment baselines are complete


Transition Activities
• Executing deployment plans • Finalizing end-user support material • Testing the deliverable product at the development site • Creating a product release • Getting user feedback • Fine-tuning the product based on feedback • Making the product available to end users

Transition Artifacts
• Product. • Release Notes: identify changes and known bugs in a version of a build or deployment unit that has been made available for use. • Installation Artifacts: refer to the software and documented instructions required to install the product. • End-User Support Material: Materials that assist the end-user in learning, using, operating and maintaining the product. • Testing results and refining previous Iteration’s artifacts.

RUP should be customized


Introduction to Use Case

Use Cases – Definition
• A Use Case is a way of using a system
o A scenario that describes limited interaction between a system and actors in the field

• In a Use Case, you describe the use of a system for a given work task
o You consider a complete work task, initiated by an actor o You utilise ”company language” in describing the work task o The aggregate Use Cases display the aggregate actor use of the system


The purpose of use cases
• The purpose for using use cases is to
o Uncover and describe all tasks that need doing in a
system (of both human and system actors) o To analyse what functionality that need developing

for the system
o The use of use cases must mean that the right functional requirements are made of the IT system

(the requirements of the business!)

Why use use cases?
• Use case strengths are
o That they work well as an analytical tool o That the notation is simple and easy to pick up o That they are easy to understand, both for the business and from the technological aspect

o It is a widely recognised market standard
o That customer and supplier – or operators and technicians – can jointly work out and understand the operational functionality o They bring structure, and ensure complete analysis

• The challenge, then, is to find and describe all use cases!

UML - Use case diagram
• Definition:
o diagram which provides an overview of system functionality o Shows which use cases the individual actor uses
No. and use case name

Construction elements:

Use case

• Purpose:
o To analyse the functionality the system must include o To give an overview of the functionality and how it is linked o To analyse how the actors should use the system

Communication arrow


Extends a use case


Includes a use case

• Challenges:
o To simplify the complex

UML use cases – Actors
• Actor:
o Person (or system), which uses the system (think in terms of roles)

Construction elements:

• Purpose:
o To analyse which actors will use the system o To analyse how the use of the actors is linked Actor

• Challenges:
o It is NOT an organisational chart (no organisational linkages required) Specialisation / Generalisation

Example of use case diagram
Actor (person) Web store Free search Find an item Customer

Structured search


Order an item


Order fast delivery

Actor (system)

Check order Registered customer

use case

Introduction to Class Diagram

What is a Class Diagram?
• A class diagram describes the types of classes in the system and the various kinds of static relationships that exist among them. • A central modeling technique that runs through nearly all object-oriented methods. • The richest notation in UML.

Essential Elements of Class Diagram
• • • • Class Attributes Operations Relationships
– – – – Associations Generalization Dependency Realization

• Constraint Rules and Notes

• A class is the description of a set of objects having similar attributes, operations, relationships and behavior.

Class Name

name:string height:Integer talk() walk()


• A semantic relationship between two or more classes that specifies connections among their instances. • A structural relationship, specifying that objects of one class are connected to objects of a second (possibly the same) class. • Example: “An Employee works for a Company”
Employee Department Company


Associations (cont.)
– Multiplicity Indicators

Exactly one Zero or more (unlimited) One or more Zero or one (optional association) Specified range Multiple, disjoint ranges

1 * (0..*) 1..* 0..1 2..4 2, 4..6, 8

• Private members can only be referenced in the same class where they are declared.(-) • Protected members can be referenced in the same class or any descendants of that class.(#) • Package scope members can be referenced by any classes in the same UML package only.(~) • Public members can be referenced directly by any class( in the same or other package).(+)


• A special form of association that models a whole-part relationship between an aggregate (the whole) and its parts.
– Models a “is a part-part of” relationship.
Car 2..*







• A strong form of aggregation
– The part classes used to make up the whole class cannot exist on their own. – Multiplicity on the whole side must be zero or one. – The life time of the part is dependent upon the whole. – The destruction of the whole class means destruction of the part classes.

Table Query

0..* 1..*





• Indicates that objects of the specialized class (subclass) are substitutable for objects of the generalized class (superclass).
– “is kind of” relationship.
An abstract class Generalization relationship Circle Shape

Super Class

Sub Class

Introduction to Collaboration Diagram

Collaboration Diagram
• A Collaboration Diagram is a diagram that shows object interactions organized around the objects and their links to each other. Unlike a Sequence Diagram, a Collaboration Diagram shows the relationships among the objects. Sequence diagrams and collaboration diagrams express similar information, but show it in different ways.

Collaboration Diagram
• Sequence diagram is time ordered • Like activity diagrams but shows association with other objects in the system


Sequence Diagram
• Horizontal object shows life of represented object • Vertical axis represents sequence of invocation of object


Sequence Diagram


Collaboration Diagram


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