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Action: Compare cultures using the 25 aspects listed in the lesson. Conditions: Given student handouts Standards: Compared cultures using the 25 aspects listed in the lesson.
There are no safety requirements. The risk assessment level is low. There are no environmental considerations Evaluations Student Checks
Why Study Culture ?
The ―Ugly American‖
threatens mission makes enemies for US distorted view
The Arab Perspective,
―The United States is an evil nation corrupted by Hollywood filth which glorifies violence, sex and drugs. Their adulterous leaders support the Zionists and repressive ―moderate‖ Arab regimes, and dare preach to us about democracy and human rights. Such arrogance.‖
values.” .” “To prevent a crisis.Why Study Culture? “The lack of sensitivity to local customs. the US should ensure that it maintains as low a profile as possible while at the same time being aware of the cultural sensitivities and national pride of the local population.Joseph Moynihan. Gulf Security in the 21st Century . and feelings often creates tension which can assist those politically active groups disenchanted with the decisions of Gulf State governments.
They seem to intentionally act in such a way to be culturally obnoxious and alienate themselves for no apparent reason. The American military people are paid to risk their lives for their country. .Culture & Terrorism The American military man is a perfect target. Kill their wives and children if necessary.Hussein Balkir Turkish Workers and Peasants Liberation Army . Do not hesitate to kill them. Make America order them back home or risk open rebellion in the streets of Washington. American military members are highly visible targets. He is a symbol of America’s military interests overseas. His death weakens the ties between America and our country’s military rulers.
British invade Zululand
―I can’t understand it, I left a thousand men there.‖
Reenactment of Isandlwana
Battle of Isandlwana Rorke’s Drift
What is Culture?
Now that we have established why culture should be studied we must understand what culture is. Shirley Teper, an anthropologist, defines culture as ―…a habit system in which ―truths‖ that have been perpetuated by a group over centuries have permeated the unconscious.‖ Culture is a belief system that ties a society together and gives a perspective on the order of the world (an outlook on life).
Opening the Door
Archetype in Action: Think about when your supervisor calls you “Come to my office please”. As you go in your supervisor tells you “Close the door please!” How do you feel?
Knowing & Respecting
Liking not required Accepting differences
By knowing people’s values and beliefs, you can come to expect and predict their behavior. Surface behaviors are influenced by beneath the- surface values and assumptions.
24.Aspects of Culture 1. 15. 18. 11. 21. 25. 20. Understanding of the Natural World General World View Religious Beliefs Religious Customs Holiday Customs Values Child raising beliefs Concept of self Social Relationships Work Ethic Concept of Leadership Concept of Personal space Concept of Fairness Practical Exercise #1 14. 12. 2. 16. 13. 4. 6. 8. 10. 17. 3. 5. 22. Rules of Social Etiquette Eating Habits Foods Importance of time Notions of Modesty Fashion Facial Expressions Gestures Concept of beauty Paintings Music Literature . 23. 19. 7. 9.
and Social Relationships) 11 – Holiday Customs (Religious beliefs) 15 – Foods (Religious beliefs and Understanding of the Natural World) 16 – Eating Habits (Religious beliefs. Values. and Concept of Modesty) .Above the Waterline 01 – Concept of Self (Concept of Fairness. Understanding of the Natural World) 03 – Religious rituals (Religious beliefs) 05 – Paintings (Concept of Beauty) 07 – Literature (Concept of Beauty) 08 – Child raising (Values and Social Relationships) 09 – Leadership (Values and Social Relationships) 10 – Gestures (Concept of Modesty. and Social Relationships) 18 – Work Ethic (importance of time and values) 21 – Music (Concept of Beauty) 22 – Fashion (Concept of Beauty and Social Relationships) 24 – Personal Space (Values. Social Relationships.
leadership. Gestures. fashion. and work ethic) 12 – Concept of Fairness (self) 13 – Social relationships (child raising. gestures.Below the Waterline 02 – Religious beliefs (Religious rituals. foods. foods) 20 – Concept of Beauty (determines Paintings. and eating habits) 04 – Importance of Time (work ethic) 06 – Values (Child Raising . holiday customs. Leadership. and personal space) 14 – Concept of Modesty (gestures and personal space) 17 – Understanding of the Natural World (self. eating habits. Literature. Music and Fashion) .
Culture is Learned Culture is learned not genetic Shapes behavior & consciousness Culture is everywhere Humans are social animals Individuals cannot survive on their own Larger groups require more complexity Culture vehicle for organization Culture is always evolving and changing Everything learned Technology & Trauma can change culture Shampoo that is taught is not always .
emerging technologies have a significant impact on social life Washing Machine Automobile Airplane Internet Understand Conflicts of Today Predict Conflicts of Tomorrow .skills or procedures necessary to make or use tools New technologies .Culture & Social Organization Cultures evolve into civilizations Government harness resources and protects from invasion Political stability establishes sound economy Strong economy encourages specialization and invention System of education indoctrinates new members Understand Culture and become a student of History Technology .
Cultural Conditioning Occurs mostly in childhood Adult conditioning Basic activities (eating. talking. etc) New behaviors New ways to perform old behaviors Cultural Conditioning Observation/Instruction Imitation Reinforcement Internalization Spontaneous manifestation . walking.
Cultural Awareness Unconscious Blissful ignorance Unaware of cultural Incompetence Conscious Incompetence Conscious Competence Unconscious Competence differences .
American Culture Essential to CCC – knowing yourself Similarities & differences can be compared People from culture sometimes have difficulty seeing their own ―out of body experience‖ Americans are diverse Americans share a core set of values & beliefs Lego © Study .
American Culture Frontier Culture Individualism Achievement & Success Freedom & Democracy Egalitarian Informal Providence Risk taking Religiosity Yankee Ingenuity Science & Technology Efficiency & Practicality Communication Direct & Blunt Honesty Saving Face not a priority .
that salvation is apparent through worldly success The frontier. distance from Europe From religious and economic repression and rigid class system and social stratification Out of the mainstream in home country. sparse population. adventuresome GEOGRAPHY FREEDOM & INDEPENDENCE THE MELTING POT Practical Exercise #2 & #3 .Sources of American Culture PROTESTANTISM A strong work ethic—work is intrinsically good—and the notion of predestination. dissatisfied with lot in life. isolation. willing to take risks. unlimited resources and opportunity.
How Non-Americans see Americans Decisive Energetic Honest Industrious Sexy Self-indulgent Sophisticated Intelligent Friendly Greedy Nationalistic Inventive Lazy Rude Practical Exercise #4 .
We’re in a hurry to get things done because it’s only then that we feel we have proved our worth. .Why are you Americans always in such a hurry to get things done? We often seem this way because of our tendency to use achievements and accomplishments as a measure of a person’s worth.
our insistence on egalitarianism may be grating.Why do you Americans insist on treating everyone the same? We do this because of a deep cultural instinct toward egalitarianism. before that. In cultures where inequality is more accepted. . the feudal system that existed in Europe. which was a reaction to the class system and.
And being more efficient means you get more done. .Why do you Americans always have to say what you’re thinking? We believe that being direct is the most efficient way to communicate.
Older cultures are more skeptical because they have been around longer and seen more. that progress is inevitable.Why do you Americans always want to change things? We think things can always be better. .
Therefore. not age or authority.Why don’t you Americans show more respect for your seniors and elders? We respect results. . unless an elder or a senior also happens to be a superior achiever. there is no automatic respect.
. the only obstacle to things getting better is a personal lack of will or effort. which is eminently fixable.Why do you Americans always think things are going to get better? We are optimists because we believe the locus of control is in ourselves. Therefore.
Not being used to working together that much.Why are you Americans so concerned about individual recognition? Individualism is ingrained in us. . we don’t trust team or group recognition.
more is better. we can do fewer of them. And when you’re counting achievements. .Why are you Americans so impatient? If things take a long time to do.
ETHNOCENTRISM The point of view that one’s own culture is to be preferred to all others. .
NEGATIVE ETHNOCENTRISM Prejudice Cognitive = believing stereotypes Emotional = feeling toward another person Behavioral = engaging in discrimination repeated & exaggerated continuously reinforced almost impossible to unlearn Stereotypes Racism: outward manifestation of prejudice .
Sports and Stereotypes .
Cultural Awareness Unconscious Incompetence Conscious Incompetence Blissful ignorance Unaware of cultural differences Conscious Competence Unconscious Competence Realize differences exist ―How do I figure these people out‖ .
.Cultural Relativism To counter our tendency to use our own culture as a tool for judgment. Practicing cultural relativism allows us to understand another culture on its own terms. We can analyze how the elements of culture fit together without judgment. we can practice cultural relativism.
Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural relativism Ethnocentrism – Denial Ethnocentrism – Defense Associated with Unconscious Incompetence Disbelief in cultural differences Think people who behave differently ―don’t know any better‖ Impose their own values on others (UGLY AMERICAN) Not threatened by cultural differences Associated with Conscious Incompetence Recognize differences and not happy about it Threatened by cultural differences & convinced of their own superiority Don’t try to impose values but instead prefer to avoid contact Associated with Conscious Incompetence Still believe new culture is inferior. but deep down we are the same‖ Ethnocentrism – Minimization . but minimizes differences ―We may be different on the surface.
Cultural Awareness Unconscious Conscious Incompetence Conscious Incompetence Recognize Unconscious Culturally differences Conscious effort to adjust behaviors Objectivity key to ―figuring these people out‖ sensitive New behaviors second nature Competence Competence .
Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural relativism Cultural Associated Cultural Relativism – Adaptation & Integration Conscious with Conscious Incompetence Recognize and accept cultural differences without judgment ―Live and let live‖ Relativism – Acceptance and Unconscious Competence Behavior and attitude change ―Bicultural‖ or ―Multicultural‖ .
including those in our group .Values & Beliefs To understand why people behave the way they do learn about values & beliefs Universal refers to ways in which all people in all groups are the same Cultural refers to what a particular group of people have in common with each other and how they are different from every other group Personal describes the ways in which each one of us is different from everyone else.
norms. there is no universally accepted way of doing any of them. PE # 5 . Humans have no biological imperative that results in one particular form of behavior throughout the world.values. or other cultural traits that are found everywhere. Although there are universal human activities.Cultural Universals Cultural universals .
Values and Beliefs Culture allows social organization Values and Beliefs keep individuals in line Belief Systems are religions ―Opium of the masses‖-Karl Marx Values differentiate between right and wrong and good and evil Values and beliefs explain the purpose of it all (Philosophical Worldview) .
describe rules of behavior that develop out of a group’s values.positive or negative reactions to the ways in which people follow norms.ideas of what is desirable in life. . Norms. Norms . Values are the standards by which people define good and bad. Sanctions .Values. & Sanctions Values .
. we may stare or shrug our shoulders.norms that are considered essential to our core values.Folkways. If someone does not follow a folkway. Taboos . and Taboos Folkways .norms that are not strictly enforced.norms so strongly ingrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion. Mores. Mores .
Individualist characteristics are often associated with men and people in urban Practical Exercise #6 settings. . Psychological & emotional closeness distance toward nonmembers Collectivist characteristics are often associated with women and people in rural settings.Individualist or Collectivist Individualist Identity primarily with self Psychological & emotional distance One may choose to join groups. but Self-sufficiency=group well being Independence & self-reliance Collectivist Identity within group important Success of group=individual survival Looking out for other’s in your own interest Harmony & interdependence stressed & valued. group membership not essential to one’s identity or success.
Answer – PE #6 Person A: $5000 Person B: $5000 Person C: $5000 Person D: $5000 Practical Exercise #7-10 .
Personal vs. Particularism . Societal Obligations Results PE #10 Percentage not: 96% Percentage of Venezuelans who said they would not: 34% of Americans who said they would What do you think accounts for the great difference between Venezuelan and American percentages? Universalism vs.
Particularism Universalism Some absolutes across the board Fairness for all. be we can be Particularism Circumstances determine action Family first.Universalism vs. no exceptions Objectivity Life is not fair. world can fend for itself The group will protect you There are no absolutes Exceptions made for certain people Practical Exercise #11 & #12 .
and the meaning given to it by the person who observes the action . has to be interpreted in two ways: the meaning given to it by the person who does the action.Cultural Context In the eye of the beholder Any behavior observed across the cultural divide. therefore.
Behavior and Context Marijuana in USA vs Holland Hunting in New York vs Alaska THE BOOK OF EMBRACES by Eduardo Galleano .
Kiss and Context Four Kisses Parental Social Ceremonial Erotic Kiss out of ContextConsequences Folkway ? Taboo ? .
Cultural Theory of Relativity House USA Africa Positive ? Negative ? Rain .
Lining up and not lining up are culturally determined behaviors Concept of Time Two poles of Time: Monochromic Polychromic Time is the given People are variables The needs of people adjusted to suit demands of time (schedules & deadlines) ―Time is money‖ ―One thing at a time‖ Interruptions are an inconvenience Time is tool of people Time is flexible More is available. not less ―Man~ana‖ Several things done at once Interruptions are a part of life PE’s #13 & #14 .
Concept of Power Distance Attitude towards Inequality Two poles of Power Different levels of status & access to power Most evident in workplace relations High Power Distance Low Power Distance Inequality is natural & accepted Those with power emphasize it (elites) No delegation & lack of initiative Power & status are artificial Deemphasized to minimize differences Delegation and initiative encouraged PE #15 .
Attitude towards Status Similar to Power Distance & Individualism / Collectivism Two poles of Status Achieved Status (doing) People respected for personal accomplishments Status is earned Less impressed by titles Using Education is important Status is not permanent (lack of productivity = low status) Status automatic & difficult to lose Can be determined by birth or school attended Acquiring Education important Stickler for titles Status & Face defended fiercely Ascribed Status (being) PE #16 .
regulations. the unknown is frightening More laws.Attitude towards Fate Fate – the inherent uncertainty in life Creates anxiety in all cultures Different responses Two poles of Fate US response = technology Others = religion High Uncertainty Avoidance Low Uncertainty Avoidance ―Group paranoia‖. policies & procedures Strong tendency toward conformity More tolerance for differences More curious than frightened of the unknown Life is interesting Risk taking PE #17 .
Percentage of Americans who chose A = 89% Percentage of Chinese who chose A = 35% . What happens to me is my own doing. Which of the following two statements do you most agree with? A. B. Sometimes I feel I don’t have control over the direction my life is taking.Attitude towards Fate People from different cultures may see their ability to influence external events very differently.
Attitude towards the Universe The Locus of Control Cultures differ greatly upon a person’s place in the world Two poles of Control Internal Within the individual No limits on what I can do ―The sky’s the limit‖ ―Life is what I do‖ Predetermination There are boundaries that cannot be crossed ―Life happens to me‖ External PE #18 .
Language . A symbol . .Culture & Symbols Symbolic culture nonmaterial culture whose central components are symbols. Gestures .involve using one’s body to communicate.something to which people attach meaning and which they use to communicate.a system of symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating.
Communication Integral part of culture More complicated in cross-cultural context Did you mean what you said? Was what you said received as you meant? Misunderstandings and miscommunications most common frustrations in CCC Examine American communication styles and compare .
.What Language Does All human groups have a language. Language allows for experiences to be passed from one generation to the next Language allows culture by freeing people to move beyond their immediate experiences Language provides us a past and a future. as well as shared understandings.
word for ―loneliness‖ comes closest Chinese word for ―four‖ also means ―death‖ Thinking and perception are shaped by language .Sapir – Whorf Hypothesis Language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world No Arabic word for ―privacy‖.
Europe Less is assumed More independence & emotional distance PE #19 . Africa People know & understand each other Maintaining harmony & saving face paramount What is said is not necessarily what is meant ―Reading between the lines‖ ―I mean what I say‖ Less reliance on nonverbal Getting or giving info more important North America. Direct/Low Indirect / High Context Unconscious understanding required Common in homogenous & collectivist societies Direct / Low Context Heterogeneous & individualist Less reliance on words More reliance on non-verbal communication Manipulation of context used to convey message Asia.Indirect/High vs. Middle East.
I have some other figures here. Cato? (Calling on people sometimes embarrasses them. I think we should. Cato thinks without directly asking him?) Those figures are not accurate. That’s another good point I have a possible suggestion.. Those figures may be slightly old. Do you think that’s a good idea? Are there any other ideas? I like most parts of that idea..Practicing Indirectness I don’t think that’s such a good idea. I would do that like this. What do you think about this idea? What do you think of this idea? May I make a suggestion? What do you think. Does anyone else have any suggestions? Have we heard all opinions? You’re doing that wrong. That’s an interesting point.. Mr. How can you find out what Mr. Have you tried doing it this way? . That’s not the point. I don’t agree.
I don’t agree. What I think we should do is. This proposal deserves further consideration. I heard another story about that project. . Can we move on to the next topic? I don’t agree with what you said about that project. Do you have another one? We don’t like it.. We don’t like it. We don’t want to talk about this now. but. I know very little about this. We will try our best. We understand your proposal very well.. Don’t expect much to happen.. You’re wrong. I’m something of an expert on this but am too polite to say so..Decoding Indirectness That is a very interesting viewpoint.. We need to talk more about this. Propose something else. It needs work. We need to consult with people not in the room before we can decide.
Nonverbal Communication Verbal & nonverbal Nonverbal accounts for majority of Communication Nonverbal communication is subconscious Four subcategories of nonverbal communication Gestures Eye Contact Facial Expression Personal Space & Touching .
leader-follower) Observe Watch for Hands (open or closed. confrontational.e. pointing?) Whole body (slouching.Gestures Gestures help identify the context of the conversation (i. together or apart) Arms (folded or open) Fingers (curled or strait. intimacy) . good posture) Amount of gesturing Gestures that accompany interruptions (talk to the hand) Gestures that indicate conversation is over (waving) Disagreement (shaking of finger) Displeasure (folded arms) Pattern of eye contact (dominance. friendly.
Eye Contact Observe the degree and nature of eye contact in as many of the following situations as possible: Between two men of the same age: Between two women of the same age: Between an elderly person and a younger person: Between a man and woman: Between a husband and a wife: Between a boss and an employee: Between a student and a teacher: Between a parent and a child: Between strangers passing on the street: What are the implications of more or less eye contact? .
Frowns Smiles Wrinkling Nostril Flaring .Facial Expressions Observe what people do with their head. nose. eyes. eyebrows. or actions taken with the head and the hands. chin. mouth.
at work. or on the street In line at the post office. etc.Personal Space & Touching Observe how close various kinds of people stand to each other and how much and in which parts of the body the following people touch each other: in various settings: What are the implications of more or less personal space and touching? In normal conversation. In an elevator. crowded or uncrowded Two men Two women Two children An older and younger person Parent and child A man and woman Husband and wife . bank. cinema.
Social Relationships PE #19 .
Cycles of Adjustment Initial Enthusiasm (the Honeymoon) Time Frame: First week or two in country Characteristics: Excitement & enthusiasm Initial Culture Shock Time Frame: First few weeks in country Characteristics Initial Adjustment Frustration Vulnerability & Dependence Homesickness Lack of routine Close bonds formed with other Americans Time Frame: 3 – 6 months in country Characteristics Routines established Climate change accomplished Increased confidence .
Culture Shock The disorientation that people experience when they come into contact with a different culture. Common symptoms of Culture Shock: Homesickness Boredom Withdrawal Excessive sleep Compulsive eating Compulsive drinking Irritability Excessive cleanliness Marital stress Family tension and conflict Chauvinistic excesses Stereotyping of host nationals Loss of ability to work effectively Unexplained fits of weeping Physical ailments (psychosomatic illnesses) .
Coping Strategies Learn new ways of doing things. . Adjust to an entirely new set of people. Learn to do things you’ve never done before. Stop doing things you can no longer do. Learn to live without all kinds of familiar phenomena. Get used to various new and unusual phenomena. Learn to live and work in an environment where you speak a foreign language.
Coping Strategies Things I can do with other people Invite people over Go and visit someone Telephone someone Go to a movie. cafe. etc. with someone Play a game with someone Participate in a team sport Volunteer my services to a needy cause .
Coping Strategies Things I can do on my own Read Play cards Listen to music Cook a meal Take a walk Meditate Go to a movie Write in my journal Go to a restaurant or café Go shopping Exercise Listen to the radio Garden Take some pictures .
Coping Strategies Things I can do on my own Call home Look at photos Write letters Make a tape to send home Play an instrument Take a ride Solve puzzles Watch birds Practice a craft Take a trip Watch television Watch people Study language Deep breathing .
. It’s not the end of the world. It’s natural to feel down from time to time. Things didn’t always go well back home either. I have taken on a lot. It’s not just me. I’ve been through worse than this.Coping Strategies Things I can remind myself of This will pass. no gain. I should expect to feel overwhelmed from time to time. No pain. I came here to experience a challenge.
Coping Strategies Ways I can improve my language skills Talk to children Talk to older people (who have more time and patience!) Go to a cafe and eavesdrop Listen to the radio or TV Join a club or sports team Participate in some other kind of group activity Study a language textbook Do exercises in a language textbook Listen to language tapes Ask a host country informant to tape record key language phrases that I can practice .
―What is Culture?‖.Sources Richard Hooker.com Cornell University Rosaldo Consulting Peace Corps ―Culture Matters‖ . Washington State University www.edu/gened/learn- modules/top_culture/culture-definition.wsu.html Webofculture.
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