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Career Theory - Review

Parsons Holland Super Krumboltz Trait and Factor Person-Environment Matching Life Span/Life Space Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making / Learning Theory of Career Counseling Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation

Gottfredson

Trait and Factor (Frank Parsons)


Matching men to jobs
Identify individuals traits Know workplace factors

Match individual to the ONE right job

Person-Environment Matching (John Holland)


Individuals express their personalities through

their vocational interests Individuals seek out work environments in which they can fully utilize their skills and abilities and express their attitudes and values Individuals and work environments can be classified respectively by their personalities and personality requirements into 1 or some combination of 6 categories

Person-Environment Matching (John Holland)


Conventional Realistic

Enterprising

Investigative

Social

Artistic

Life Span / Life Space (Donald E. Super)


Life Span Developmental
5 Stages

Growth Exploration Establishment Maintenance Disengagement

Life Span / Life Space (Donald E. Super)


Life Space Theatres

Child Student Leisurite

Citizen Worker Homemaker

Spouse Parent Pensioner

Qualities of roles

Problem

Bandwith Salience Intensity

Role Spillover

Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making SLTCDM


(John Krumboltz)
4 factors influence 4 primary ways

career decision making


factors influence career decisions


Genetic endowments and special abilities Environmental events and conditions Instrumental and associative learning experiences Task approach skills

Self-observation generalizations Worldview generalizations Task approach skills Actions

Learning Theory of Career Counseling LTCC


(John Krumboltz)
Typical career concerns

Typical LTCC interventions

Indecision (goal absence; incapable of deciding) Undecided (lack of information) Unrealism (high aspirations) Multipotentiality (equal alternative conflict)

Help clients acquire more accurate self-observation generalizations Help clients acquire more accurate worldview generalizations Learn new task approach skills Take appropriate careerrelated actions

Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation


(Linda Gottfredson)
Circumscription Process of eliminating

unacceptable occupational alternatives based primarily upon gender and prestige Guided by 5 principles

Children capable of understanding and organizing complex information Occupational preferences reflect attempts to implement and enhance self-concept Children integrate complex distinctions among people (prestige) while integrating the more concrete phenomena (sex roles) Children progressively eliminate occupational options as self-concept complexity and clarity increases Process is gradual and not readily obvious

Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation


(Linda Gottfredson)
Principles operate throughout 4 cognitive

stages which describe process


Orientation to size and power Orientation to sex roles Orientation to social valuation Orientation to internal, unique self

Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation


(Linda Gottfredson)
Compromise Modifying occupational

choices in light of limiting factors, whether internally or externally imposed


Tolerable-effort boundary Tolerable-level boundary Tolerable-sextype boundary Zone of acceptable alternatives

Self-Creation Included in

circumscription process; altering selfconcept in light of developmental or environmental factors

Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation


(Linda Gottfredson)
Compromise Modifying occupational

choices in light of limiting factors, whether internally or externally imposed


Tolerable-effort boundary Tolerable-level boundary Tolerable-sextype boundary Zone of acceptable alternatives

Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation


(Linda Gottfredson)
High
Surgeon Federal Judge Psychiatrist

Tolerable-Effort Boundary

High School Teacher

Elementary Teacher

Prestige

Zone of Acceptable Alternatives

Real Estate Agent

Tolerable-Sextype Boundary

Nurse

Receptionist

Tolerable-Level Boundary
Construction Worker

Low
Masculine

Feminine

Sextype Rating

Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation


(Linda Gottfredson)
Self-Creation Included in

circumscription process; altering selfconcept in light of developmental or environmental factors

Career Theory - Whats New


Lent, Brown, & Hackett
Peterson, Sampson, Reardon, & Lenz Hansen

Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)


Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) Integrative Life Planning (ILP)

Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)


Robert W. Lent Steven D. Brown Gail Hackett

SCCT - Influences

Cognitive variables and processes Personal agency Constructivism

SCCT - Goals

To trace connections between persons and their careerrelated contexts To trace connections between cognitive and interpersonal factors To trace connections between self-directed and externally imposed influences Intended to build conceptual linkages with other theories of career development Offer a potentially unifying framework How Holland types develop How learning experiences influence interests in Krumboltzs theory What factors affect differential role salience in Supers theory How people acquire abilities in Dawis and Loftquists Theory of Work Adjustment

SCCT Central concepts and


assumptions
Person-environment interaction is

dynamic and situation specific People are products AND producers of their environments Key Theoretical Constructs

Self-efficacy Outcomes expectations Goals

Development of Basic Career Interests over Time


(Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994)

Perceived Abilities

Self-Efficacy

Sources of Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations

Interest

Intentions/ Goals for Activity Involvement

Activity Selection and Practice

Performance Attainments (e.g., goal fulfillment, skill development

Outcome Expectations Values

Person, Contextual, and Experiential Factors Affecting Career-Related Choice Behavior


(Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1993)

Person Inputs -Predispositions -Gender -Ethnicity -Disability/Health Status Self-Efficacy 1 12 moderate

Contextual Influences Proximal to Choice Behavior

11 10 Choice Goals 8 9

7
Learning Experiences Interest 3

moderate

Choice Actions

Performance Domains and Attainments

2 Outcome Expectations 6

Background Contextual Affordances

SCCT Intervention Implications


Expanding interests and facilitating

choice Overcoming barriers to choice and success Developing and modifying self-efficacy perceptions

Cognitive Information Processing CIP

Developers

Gary W. Peterson James P. Sampson Robert C. Reardon Janet G. Lenz

Cognitive Information Processing CIP

Give a man a fish and he will

eat for a day. Teach a man to fish and he will eat for a lifetime.

CIP in context
Theoretically integrative
Trait

& Factor (Parsons) P/E Matching (Holland) Earlier decision theories (Janis & Mann; Katz; Gelatt, Tiedeman) SLTCDM (Krumboltz)

CIP definitions
Career problem
Career problem solving

Career decision making


Career development Lifestyle

CIP 4 Assumptions
1. Career decision making involves

interaction between cognitive and affective processes 2. Decision making capacity depends upon availability of cognitive operations and knowledge 3. Career development is ongoing and cognitive structures continually evolve 4. Enhancing information processing skills is the goal of career counseling

CIP 3 Dimensions
Pyramid of information processing
CASVE cycle of decision making skills Executive processing domain

CIP Pyramid of Information Processing

Metacognitions

Executive Processing Domain

Generic Information-Processing Skills (CASVE)

Decision Making Skills Domain

Self-Knowledge

Occupational Knowledge

Knowledge Domains

CIP CASVE Cycle of Decision Making Skills


External or Internal Problem Signals

Communication (Identifying a gap)

Execution (Forming means-ends strategies

Analysis (Interrelating problem components)

Valuing (Prioritizing Alternatives)

Synthesis (Creating likely Alternatives)

CIP Executive Processing Domain


Metacognitive skills

Self-talk Self-awareness Monitoring and control

CIP Intervention Implications


Foci are the three domains

Acquisition of knowledge Acquisition of decision-making skills Development of executive processing domain

Specifics

Teaching decision making skills before problems become apparent Helping students identify and utilize information sources Assessment for self-knowledge Applying CASVE to help clients solve specific problems Disputing irrational beliefs (developing positive self-talk) Help clients develop internal locus of control Help clients understand what success looks like

Integrative Life Planning ILP (L. Sunny Hansen)


Focuses on adult career development
New worldview Addresses diversity issues

Holistic integration
Personal agency Connections

ILP 4 Assumptions
1. Nature of knowledge changing

demanding new ways of knowing 2. Connections in life are important 3. Broader kinds of self-knowledge and societal knowledge are critical 4. Career counseling needs to focus on career professionals as change agents

ILP 6 Career Development Tasks


1. Finding work that needs doing in
2. 3. 4.

5.
6.

changing global contexts Weaving our lives into a meaningful whole Connecting family and work Valuing pluralism and diversity Managing personal transitions and organizational change Exploring spirituality and life purpose

ILP Intervention Implications


Focus on developmental tasks

Understand them See interrelatedness Prioritize tasks according to personal needs Teach approach to life planning
Connectedness Wholeness Community