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RFI In The Name Of God D
Tag Antenna Design for Passive UHF RFID System Click to edit Master subtitle style Presentor: H. Razaghian
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What is RFID?

RFI D

Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) •A technology for communication via radio waves between a reader and a tag attached to an object for the two purpose: • Identification • Click to edit Tracking Master subtitle style

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and RF integrated circuits 5/6/12 44 • . the British developed the first active identify friend subtitle style Click to edit Master or foe(IFF) system. • RFI D Under Watson-Watt. embedded software. The Germans discovered that if pilots rolled their planes as returned to base.History of RFID • Roots of RFID technology traced back to world war II. • Considerable advances in microelectronics. • Harry Stockman published a paper “Communications by Means of Reflected Power” in October 1948. change the radio signal reflected back.

Data Processing Subsystem 5/6/12 55 .Components of the RFID System • RFID Reader(Transceiver) -Can read and write data to tag • RFI D RFID Tag(Transponder) - Located on the object • -Contains the information of the identified Click to edit Master subtitle style -Distributes the information between other data processing system.

Simple Block Diagram of an RFID System RFI D Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/6/12 66 .

• 5/6/12 77 .RFID Reader • RFI D The reader sometimes called an interrogator or scanner • sends and receives RF data to and from tag via antenna. Click contain: The reader to edit Master subtitle style ü RF transceiver module (transmitter and receiver) ü signal processor and controller unit ücoupling element (antenna) üserial data interface to a host system.

Reader Anatomy Digital Signal Processor (DSP) RFI D Network Processor Click to edit Master subtitle style Power Supply 5/6/12 915MHz Radio 13.56MHz Radio 88 .

Assembly line .Types of Readers • Readers can be at a fixed point .Shipping Fixed such as Reader RFI D Assembly line • ReadersClick to also be mobile/handheld can edit Master subtitle style Material (Records boxes loaded and identify boxes Tracking as they are removed) 5/6/12 Handheld Wireless Reader 99 Shipping Bill of Portal Lading .Store entrance .

Some Examples of RFID Reader RFI D Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/6/12 1010 .

RFID Tag • The tag acts as a programmable data-carrying device Components of tag 1) Coupling element(antenna) 2) low-power CMOS IC • RFI D Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/6/12 1111 .

Tag Block Diagram RFI D Control Logic (Finite State machine) Memory Cells Antenn a Power Supply Tx Modulator Click to edit Master subtitle style Rx Demodulato r Tag Integrated Circuit (IC) 5/6/12 1212 .

RFI D 1. which has a battery used only to power the tag IC. which has no battery on it.Types of Tags 1. Click to edit Master subtitle style 1. Active tag. Semipassive tag. The absence of a power supply makes: .much cheaper . and not for communication.more smaller than active tags 5/6/12 1313 . which has a battery that supplies power to all functions. Passive tag.

read many (WORM) tags . e.Tag ID is assigned at the factory during manufacturing 1) can never be changed 2) No additional data can be assigned to the tag üWrite once.Tag data can be changed over time 1) Part or all of the data section can be locked 5/6/12 RFI D 1414 .Data written once. during packing or manufacturing Click to edit Master subtitle style 1) tag is locked once data is written 2) similar to a compact disc or DVD üRead/Write ..RFID Tag Memory ü Read-only tags .g.

Performance of system RFI D Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/6/12 1515 .

strongly mismatched ü Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/6/12 1616 .Performance of system ü Reader transmits a modulated RF signal to the Tag RFI D The application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip receives power from antenna ü Chip responds by varying its input impedance and thus modulate the backscattered signal ü Chip impedance switches between two states: .matched to the antenna (chip collects power in this state) .

56MHz) -they are based on magnetic flux coupling among the reader.s antenna Ø 5/6/12 1717 .8GHz) -they are based on electromagnetic interaction among the reader.s and tag.45GHz and 5.Operational Frequencies Ø Low frequency (LF) (125-134KHz) RFI D High frequency (HF) (13.s and tag.s coils Ø Ø Ultra-high frequency (UHF) (860-960MHz) Click to edit Master subtitle style Microwave frequency (2.

• 5/6/12 1818 . the Click to edit Master with an Near-field and the Far-field.Types of Power Transfer from Reader to the Tag ü RFI D Magnetic induction (near-field RFID) Electromagnetic (EM) wave capture (far-field RFID) ü These two designs take advantage of the EM properties associatedsubtitle style RF antenna.

Near-field Power/Communication Mechanism for RFID RFI D Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/6/12 1919 .

tag is: RFI D Faraday s principle of magnetic induction Using Induction for power coupling from reader to tag Ø Ø modulation.Near-field RFID Ø Basis of near-field coupling between a reader and . 5/6/12 2020 . Ø Click to edit in near-field Technique used Master subtitle styleRFID is Load The range for magnetic induction approximates to: C/2πf where C is speed of light and f is the frequency.

Far-field Power/Communication Mechanism for RFID RFI D Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/6/12 2121 .

5/6/12 2222 .Far-field RFID Ø Basis of far-field coupling between a reader and tag is: Electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation RFI D Using EM wave capture for power transfer from reader to tag Ø Ø scattering. Ø Technique used Master subtitle style Click to edit in far-field RFID is Back Tags that use far-field principles operate at greater than 100MHz typically in UHF and Microwave bands.

have matching polarization with reader antenna 4) Must provide good impedance matching 5/6/12 2323 .Antenna for Passive Tag • Antenna determines the performance of a tag RFI D A suitable RFID tag antenna must have the following characteristics: • 1) Be small enough and have very high efficiency Click to edit Master subtitle style 2) Be very cheap 3) Normally.

Antenna Passive Tag Design • The most important tag performance characteristic is read rang •Read range : maximum distance which reader can detect the backscattered signal .s tag • Friis free-space formula RFI D Click to edit Master subtitle style λ PtGt (Under R P hypothesis of 4 Grτ = t polarization π 4Ra τ h 0≤τ matching) Rc 2 Zc 5/6/12 2424 = ≤1 ½ .

•Antenna must be directly matched to the ASIC • 5/6/12 2525 .Impedance Matching Circuit Model of a RFID Tag RFI D Click to edit Master subtitle style Adding an external matching network with lumped elements is prohibitive in tags due to cost and fabrication issues.

Qualitative behavior of antenna impedance. chip impedance. and read range as function of frequency RFI D Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/6/12 2626 .

1)T –match Methods for Conjugate Impedance Matching RFI D 2Zt(1+α )2ZA 2Zt + (1+α)2ZA Zi n = Equivalent circuit Click to edit is connected üantenna source Master subtitle styleto a second dipole of length a≤l üthe parameters a.b and w’ can be adjusted to match the Zchip 5/6/12 2727 .

2) Inductively coupled loop Methods for Conjugate Impedance Matching RFI D Equivalent Click coupled small style üInductively to edit Master subtitle loop circuit (2πfM Zin ZLoo )2 Z = p+ A Rin(f0) = (2πf0M)2/RA(f0) proximity to the radiating body 2πf0Lloop üThe strength of the coupling and added reactance. controlled by “d” and shape of the loop placed at = close a Xin(f0) 5/6/12 2828 .

3) Meandering Methods for Conjugate Impedance Matching RFI D Click to edit Master subtitle style Useful for tag fabricated with dipoles üUseful for size reduction ü 5/6/12 2929 .

Types of Antenna with Impedance Matching Meandering and T-match RFI D Tmatch Click to edit Master subtitle style Meandering and 5/6/12 inductively Meandering with Meanderi ng 3030 .

RFID Advantages over Barcode RFI D No line of sight required for reading üEach tag can carry a lot of data (read/write) üUPC(Barcodes) require optical reader to read whereasClick to edit Master subtitle style radio waves RFID reader reads via üPassive tags have a virtually unlimited lifetime üActive tags can be read from great distances ü 5/6/12 3131 .

“Impedance Matching Concepts in RFID Transponder Design.rfidjournal. Pavel V. AutoID’05. 5. pp.39-42. S. pp. Feb. IEEE Journals. “An Introduction to RFID Technology” . vol. S. Lam. 2005 5/6/12 3232 http://www. Nikitin.com/article/articleview . V. “The History of RFID D Technology” References [2] R. 2006. 25-33.RFI [1] RFID Journal.” Fourth IEEE Workshop on Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies. Want. F. Pervasive Computing. Rao. Click to edit Master subtitle style [3] K.

RFI D Is the Question? Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/6/12 3333 .

RFI D Thank you for your attention Click to edit Master subtitle style Hamed Razaghian 5/6/12 3434 .

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