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– A REVIEW
MD Scholar, Department of Moalijat, F/O Medicine, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.
• • • • • • • • • Humoural Theory Unani - Tibb therapy Hijamat (Cupping) Results of some clinical trials Immuo modulatory function of the cupping Some important sites of Cupping and its benefits Al Hadith Conclusion References
• The humours are the primary fluids which are manufactured by the liver from the food and drink we consume. and interconnected by. 3 . Safra (bile) and Sauda (black bile). Every level of organization in the body – sub-cellular organelles.Humoural Theory Unani Medicine is based on Hippocratic theory of four humours i. cells. Khoon (blood). Every physical existence is the combination of above four groups of elements. the humours1. Bulgham (phlegm). tissues and organs – is infused with.e.
• One of the most important functions of the humours is to maintain the ideal qualitative states associated with the temperament of an individual. prevents the build-up of toxins. • Humoral imbalance is often the root cause in the origin and development of a particular illness 4.Humoural Theory Cont… • A proper balance of humours within a person’s body ensures efficient metabolism. 4 . and maintains optimum health1.
UNANI -TIBB THERAPY Treatment of chronic ailments is carried out by way of four approaches5. (1) Ilaj bil Ghiza (Dietotherapy) according to the patient’s temperament and the nature of the ailment (2) Ilaj bil Dawa (Pharmacotherapy) – that is. treatment with one or more of a range of herbal products. 5 . All of them aimed at correcting qualitative imbalances associated with the humours and temperament of an individual.
massage and fasting. meditation. 6 . which includes a number of therapeutic interventions. purging. • Cupping – both dry and wet – is a major part of regimental therapy6. such as Cupping. diuresis.UNANI -TIBB THERAPY CONT… (3) Ilaj bil Yad (Surgical intervention). (4) Ilaj bil thadbeer (Regimental therapy).
“ This practice was highly encouraged by the Prophet muhammad (peace be upon him)2. 7 . • Cupping or Hijamat is a method used for local evacuation or diversion of morbid humours in which a horn (singhi) is attached to the surface of the skin of the diseased part through negative pressure created by vacuum3.HIJAMAT (CUPPING) • Al-hijamah (also hijama) is derived from the Arabic word hajm which means "sucking.
thus it helps to balance the humours1.9-10.4. • Thus cupping removes bad or morbid matters from the body and helps to neutralize the humours (Akhlath) and also helps to regain the health7.HIJAMAT (CUPPING) CONT… • According to Avicenna ‘Cupping depurates the neighboring skin or organ more effectively and it withdraws thin blood rather than thick blood. 8 .
HIJAMAT (CUPPING) CONT… • Cupping causes the tissues beneath the cup to be drawn up and swell. This enhanced blood flow under the cup draws impurities and toxins away from the nearby tissues and organs to the skin. and an increase in blood flow to the affected area. from where they are expelled9.10. 9 .
cupping under the breast1 or cupping on the medial epicondyle of the femur. therefore it purifies the akhlath especially Dam (Blood).10. • It could be used to divert madda from the direction of its flow– checking the menstruation .cupping on the area in between the shoulders9. – Heamoptysis . 10 . the skin1.HIJAMAT (CUPPING) CONT… • Cupping diverts toxins and impurities (swellings) from important organs such as the liver or kidney to the less important organ.
heart and other internal organs. and numerous other conditions due to derangements of akhlaths1. or correct the derangement of temperament (soo-e-mizaj) by regulating humours1. non-invasive and inexpensive technique. and muscle spasms. 11 .HIJAMAT (CUPPING) CONT… • Cupping is a safe. joint pains. It is used to alleviate the pain and discomfort arising from disorders of the lungs. It removes morbid matter (madda-e-marz).
001)11.03) or heat pad (P < 0.Results of some clinical trials Hijamat bil Shurt in combination with Unani formulation for Waja ul Mufasil is better than when compared with formulation alone8.001).01) and analgesia (P < 0. respectively.05) and trigeminal neuralgia (P < 0. Another two RCTs also showed positive effects of cupping in cancer pain (P < 0. Two RCTs suggested significant pain reduction for cupping in low back pain compared with usual care (P < 0. Two RCTs reported favorable effects of cupping on pain in brachialgia compared with usual care (P = 0.01) compared with anticancer drugs and analgesics. 12 .
Wet-cupping care was significantly more effective in reducing bodily pain than usual care at 3-month follow-up12. Wet -cupping leads to clinical relevant benefits for primary care patients with headache13. Traditional wet-cupping care delivered in a primary care setting was safe and acceptable to patients with nonspecific low back pain. Results of some clinical trials cont… 13 .
The efficacy of cupping in the long-term management of CTS and related mechanisms remains to be clarified16. cupping therapy may be effective in relieving the pain and other symptoms related to CTS. 14 Results of some clinical trials cont… .• The treatment was safe and well tolerated. • Wet cupping may be an effective method of reducing LDL cholesterol in men and consequently may have a preventive effect against atherosclerosis17.
It has modulatory effects on the innate (NK %) and adaptive cellular (SIL-2R conc.BLC therapy combined with conventional therapy may improve the clinical condition of patients with RA. conclusion.) immune responses that could be used as monitoring tools for disease activity and prognosis.Immuo modulatory function of the cupping • Cupping has the advantage of immuno-modulatory function. 15 . Thus it helps the humours especially Dam to become balanced (Mothadil). • Clinical researches Immunomodulatory effects of blood letting cupping therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis14.
• Cupping may exert local inflammatory response through local vascular damage (increased platelets and lymphocytes) which stimulate healing 16 .Immuo modulatory function of the cupping cont… Cupping for patients with inflammatory complaints –clinical and biochemical outcomes15. Conclusion • Cupping therapy significantly effects the levels of certain immune cells and inflammatory markers.
meningitis. Thus it can be used for the diseases caused by Dam.attracts madda from the entire body especially from the head. • Nape of the neck.it purifies the blood (Dam) and promotes the menstrual bleeding. • Cupping over the shank. headache and conjunctivitis6. Zeeequn Nafz Damavi (Sanguinous Asthma)1.fetor. menstrual problems and piles1. stomatitis. 17 .Heamoptysis.Some important sites of Cupping and its benefits cont… • Between shoulders. • Over the anus. diphtheria.
gout and diseases on the hip and thigh1. 18 . • Jaabir ibn Abdullah (Raliyallahu Anhu) reported that the Messenger (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) was treated with cupping on his hip for a pain in that area.Renal colic. [Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawud (3863)].piles. endometiritis and amenorrhea6. • Calf muscles.SOME IMPORTANT SITES OF CUPPING AND ITS BENEFITS CONT… • Over the hip.cleanses head and jaws6. • Under the chin. hydrocele.Sciatica1 • Between the hips.
for a pain in that area.SOME IMPORTANT SITES OF CUPPING AND ITS BENEFITS CONT… • Jaabir ibn Abdullah (Raliyallahu Anhu) reported that the Messenger (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) was treated with cupping on his hip for a pain in that area. 19 . on the top of his foot. [Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawud (1836)]. [Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawud (3863)]. • Anas ibn Maalik (Raliyallahu Anhu) reported that the Messenger (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) was treated with cupping when he was in Ihram.
"Indeed the best of remedies you have is cupping. but I forbid my Ummah (nation) from cauterization (branding with fire)" [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (5371)].AL HADITH • Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam ) said. 20 . and in cauterizing with fire. in drinking honey.
still there should be under taken more researches in this field to reveal its all benefits that authentic texts mentioned. Resent clinical researches proved some of its efficacy. 21 . • It has medicinal property and also spiritual property. Thus by regulating/balancing and purifying the akhlath It relieves several ailments.Conclusion • Hajamat helps to remove morbid material from the capillaries and also it balancing the humours (Akhlath).
Hyderabad) 1935. Tibb (2000). Mountain of Light. Meezan-ut-tib (Urdu) translated by Kabeeruddin M. 1940. 15-23. Ibn-ul-Kuf. 1980.H.cfm/alhijamah_cupping_ and_ bloodletting _in_islam Mohd Akbar Arzani. Hamdani K. The Canon of Medicine – Avicenna. http://islamic-practices. Delhi). Traditional Roots of Medicine in Modern Routes to Health. Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi. (1999). 5. 6. Marol. Kitab-ul-Umda fil Jarahat. 3. 7. 1995. 4. USA. Jamia Hamdard. Inc. South Africa. Ibn-e-Sina. Urdu Academy. Usool-e-tib.com/article.suite101. Bhikha R A H and Haq M A. 2. Al-Qanoon-Fil-tib (English).References 1. 22 . Faculty of Islamic Studies. Bakhtiar L. 147-148. Great Books of the Islamic World.(Daeratul Moarif Usmaniya University. (Dafratul Mashih. 405.
Lucknow. Division of Standard Research. Boddy K.com.com 23 12. 2006. Ahmadi A. Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Saeb M.kr. ahmadiar1012@yahoo. 10.Kharzam-e-Shahi. Schwebel DC. Mohammadi R. Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine. (Munshi Naval Kishore. Lee DH. Vol. drmslee@gmail. 13. 1903. Ahmadi A. Daejeon. Clinical Study on Hijamat bil shurt (wet cupping) And Evaluation of its efficacy in the treatment of Waja ul Mafasil (Arthritis). Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. (Urdu) translated by Khan HH. Faculty of Medicine (U). Kamilus Sana. mslee@kiom. I. Jamia Hamdard. Department of Anesthesiology. Farhadi K. Lee MS.References 8. Schwebel DC. New Delhi. Rezaei M. Ehsan Ahmad. Department of Moalijat. 11. Ali Ibnu Abbas Majusi. Ernst E. 305-811. . Iran. 1989. Choubsaz M. Zakheera-e. 224-225. Lucknow). Ismail Jurjani . South Korea.re. Pain research center. Kim JI. 9. Iran. Critical Care and Pain Management.
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