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Dr. Niranjan Murthy H.

L
Assistant Professor
Dept of Physiology
SSMC

Atmosphere

Alveoli

Blood

Tissues

Transport of oxygen
• Oxygen is carried by blood in two forms:
(i) dissolved in plasma
(ii) combined with hemoglobin

PO2 mm Hg PCO2 mm Hg Alveolus 104 45 Arterial blood 95 40 Venous Blood 40 45 Tissue 40 46 .

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Uptake of oxygen by pulmonary blood .

O2 uptake during exercise • Resting O2 requirement: 250ml/min • O2 requirement increases by 20 times during strenuous exercise • Increased cardiac output reduces blood exposure time to alveolar O2 • Blood is still almost saturated because: (i) increased diffusing capacity for O2 (ii) safety period for O2 diffusion .

O2 transport in arterial blood • Pulmonary venous blood has PO2 of 104 mm Hg • Aortic blood has PO2 of 95 mm Hg • Admixture of deoxygenated blood from bronchial circulation .

Diffusion of O2 into tissue fluids • Concentration gradient of 55 mm Hg • Tissue PO2 depends on: (i) rate of oxygen transport to tissues by blood (ii) rate of tissue metabolism • Intracellular PO2 ranges from 5 to 40 mm Hg • 1 to 3mm Hg of tissue PO2 is adequate to support chemical reactions of the cells .

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Transport of oxygen in blood • Chemical combination with hemoglobin- oxygenation.reversible.97% • Dissolved in plasma.3% .

HbA • Fetal hemoglobin. a polypeptide chain and a molecule of oxygen • Adult hemoglobin.HbF . Hemoglobin • Pigment present in RBCs • Iron-protoporphyrin-globin • Iron is in ferrous form • Fe2+ binds 4 pyrrole rings.

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Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve .

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• Loose and reversible combination of oxygen molecule with heme • 4 molecules of oxygen can be carried by each hemoglobin molecule • Each gram of Hb binds 1. saturation of 97 percent and O2 carrying capacity of 19.34 ml of O2 • Each 100ml of blood carries 20.4ml/100ml of blood .1ml of O2 • Arterial blood is having PO2 of 95mm Hg.

25% at rest .percentage of blood that gives up O2 during tissue capillary passage.4ml/100ml • 5ml of O2 is transported from lungs to tissues under normal resting conditions • Utilization coefficient. PO2 is 40 mm Hg. percentage saturation is 75% and O2 carrying capacity is 14.• In venous blood.

• During strenuous exercise tissue PO2 may fall to 15 mm Hg thus increasing O2 delivery upto 15ml/100ml • Cardiac output may increase 7 fold thus giving an overall 20 times increase in O2 delivery • Utilization coefficient increases to 75-85% .

Tissue oxygen buffer system • Hb is responsible for stabilizing oxygen pressure in tissues • Tissue pressure is held tightly between 15 and 40 mm Hg. • Buffer effect maintains tissue PO2 even when there is marked changes in atmospheric [O2] .

This of advantage in high altitudes • Significance of steep part.Physiological significance of O2-Hb dissociation curve • Significance of flat top part.small reduction in tissue PO2 will increase more release of O2 thus preventing tissue hypoxia .amount of O2 carried will not change significantly even if PO2 drops to 60mm Hg.

4 and body temperature 37°C • Hb affinity for O2 is inverse function of P50 . • Normal P50 is 26mm Hg at PCO2 40mm Hg. Significance of P50 • It is PO2 at which Hb is half saturated with O2 . pH 7.

Factors affecting O2-Hb dissociation curve .

the bohr effect: CO2 entry to tissue capillaries Reduced pH Increased delivery of O2 to tissues (shift to right) Vice-versa in pulmonary capillaries (shift to left) .• Effect of pH.

• Effect of 2.3- diphosphoglycerate (DPG): Shifts curve to right Doesn’t bind to γ chain of HbF Increased levels in chronic hypoxia decreased levels in stored blood .

• Shift to left Carbon monoxide Myoglobin HbF .

29ml of O2 is dissolved in 100ml of plasma • At venous PO2 of 40mm Hg. Transport of O2 in dissolved form • At normal PO2 of 95 mm Hg. 0.12ml of O2 is dissolved . 0.

Uptake of CO2 from tissues .

Excretion of CO2 from the lung .

Transport of CO2 • Normally.70% of total CO2 transport (iii) in combination with Hb- carbaminohemoglobin.20 to 30% of total CO2 transport .7% of CO2 transport (ii) bicarbonate ion form.3ml/100ml. 4ml of CO2/100ml of blood is transported each minute to lungs • Forms of CO2 transport: (i) dissolved form.0.

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diuretic .Hamburger phenomenon • Acetazolamide.carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.Transport of CO2 in HCO3 form ¯ • RBCs are rich in carbonic anhydrase • CO2 from plasma diffuses into RBC • CO2+H2O=H2CO3=H++HCO3¯ • HCO3¯ is exchanged for Cl¯ • Chloride shift.

Transport of CO2 in carbaminohemoglobin form • Combination with Hb and other plasma proteins • Combination with plasma proteins is less significant .

Carbon dioxide dissociation curve • Total quantity of CO2 in blood in all forms depends on PCO2 • PaCO2 is 40mm Hg and PvCO2 is 45mm Hg • [CO2] in veins is 52 volumes percent and in arterial blood is 48 volumes percent .

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Haldane effect • Binding of O2 to Hb will tend to displace CO2 • OxyHb is a stronger acid • Highly acidic Hb has less tendency to combine with CO2 to form carbaminohemoglobin • Increased acidity of Hb will displace H+ from Hb • It doubles the pickup of CO2 at tissues and release in the lungs .

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fats is 0.7 • R for a person on normal diet is 0. Respiratory quotient • R= rate of CO2 output rate of O2 uptake • R for carbohydrates is 1.825 .