Theories And Models Of Nursing Administration Current Trends And Issues In Nursing Administration

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Management Perspectives Over Time
Exhibit 2.1, p.44

The Technology-Driven Workplace The Learning Organization

2000 2010 2010 2000 2000 2000


Total Quality Management Contingency Views 1950 Systems Theory 1940 Management Science Perspective 1930 Humanistic Perspective 1890 Classical 1870 1970


1990 1990 1940 2010


● ● ● ● Rational. scientific approach to management – make organizations efficient operating machines Scientific Management Bureaucratic Organizations Administrative Principles .C.Classical Perspective: 3000 B.

 Trained workers in standard method.  Selected workers with appropriate abilities for each job. .  Provided wage incentives to workers for increased output.  Supported workers by planning work and eliminating interruptions.Scientific Management: Taylor 1856-1915 General Approach  Developed standard method for performing each job.

 Initiated the careful study of tasks and jobs.  Demonstrated the importance of personnel and their training.  Tended to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ideas . Criticisms  Did not appreciate social context of work and higher needs of workers.Scientific Management Contributions  Demonstrated the importance of compensation for performance.  Did not acknowledge variance among individuals.

Bureaucracy Organizations   Max Weber 1864-1920 Prior to Bureaucracy Organizations  European employees were loyal to a single individual rather than to the organization or its mission  Resources used to realize individual desires rather than organizational goals  Systematic approach –looked at organization as a whole Ethical Dilemma: The Supervisor .

p. 49 .3.Bureaucracy Organizations Division of labor with Clear definitions of authority and responsibility Personnel are selected and promoted based on technical qualifications Positions organized in a hierarchy of authority Administrative acts and decisions recorded in writing Management separate from the ownership of the organization Managers subject to Rules and procedures that will ensure reliable predictable behavior Exhibit 2.

Administrative Principles   Contributors: Henri Fayol. commanding. coordinating. Mary Parker. organizing. Barnard Focus:  Organization rather than the individual  Delineated the management functions of planning. and controlling . and Chester I.

Henri Fayol 1841-1925 14 General Principles of Management        Division of labor Authority Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination of individual interest Remuneration        Centralization Scalar chain Order Equity Stability and tenure of staff Initiative Esprit de corps .

Power .Mary Parker Follett 18681933  Importance of common super-ordinate goals for reducing conflict in organizations  Popular with businesspeople of her day  Overlooked by management scholars  Contrast to scientific management  Reemerging as applicable in dealing Ethics . .in with rapid change Empowerment global environment  Leadership – importance of people vs.

Chester Barnard 1886-1961  Informal Organization  Cliques  Naturally occurring social groupings  Acceptance Theory of Authority  Free will  Can choose to follow management orders .

Humanistic Perspective Emphasized understanding human behavior. and attitudes in the workplace ● ● Human Relations Movement Human Resources Perspective ● Behavioral Sciences Approach . needs.

Human Relations Movement Emphasized satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity .

test lasted 6 years Interpretation. money not cause of increased output Factor that increased output. Human Relations .Hawthorne Studies        Ten year study Four experimental & three control groups Five different tests Test pointed to factors other than illumination for productivity 1st Relay Assembly Test Room experiment. was controversial.

Human Resource Perspective Suggests jobs should be designed to meet higher-level needs by allowing workers to use their full potential .

Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1908-1970 Selfactualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Based on needs satisfaction .

or threatened with punishment Prefer direction. directed. controlled.Douglas McGregor 1906-1964 Theory X & Y Theory X Assumptions    Dislike work –will avoid it Must be coerced. avoid responsibility. creativity widely distributed Intellectual potential only partially utilized . little ambition. want security Theory Y Assumptions      Do not dislike work Self direction and self control Seek responsibility Imagination.

Douglas McGregor Theory X&Y  Few companies today still use Theory X  Many are trying Theory Y techniques Experiential Exercise: Theory X and Theory Y Scale .

psychology.Behavioral Sciences Approach Sub-field of the Humanistic Management Perspective   Applies social science in an organizational context Draws from economics. and other disciplines  Understand employee behavior and interaction in an organizational setting  OD – Organization Development . sociology. anthropology.

and other quantitative techniques to managerial problems  Operations Research – mathematical modeling  Operations Management – specializes in physical production of goods or services  Information Technology – reflected in management information systems . statistics.Management Science Perspective   Emerged after WW II Applied mathematics.

Recent Historical Trends ● ● ● Systems Theory Contingency View Total Quality Management (TQM) .

5. p.Systems View of Organizations Exhibit 2. 58 .

Contingency View of Management Successful resolution of organizational problems is thought to depend on managers’ identification of key variations in the situation at hand .

7.Elements of a Learning Organization Team-Based Structure Learning Organization Empowered Employees Open Information Exhibit 2. p. 61 .

Types of E-Commerce Business-to-Consumer B2C Selling Products and Services Online Business-to-Business B2B Transactions Between Organizations Consumer-to-Consumer C2C Electronic Markets Created by Web-Based Intermediaries Exhibit 2.8. p. 63 .

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