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Eng. Yassir Hassan Elamin
Protocol Layers 4. Network Interconnection/Internet .Basic Networking Concepts 1. Introduction 2. Protocols 3.
javasoft.com.98 -Some networks also provide names that humans can more easily remember than numbers. each node has a unique address. -Addresses are numeric quantities that are easy for computers to work with. corresponding to the above numeric address.160. -Each of the devices on the network can be thought of as a node.241. Example: www.1. Example: 204. Introduction -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways so as to be able to exchange data. but not for humans to remember. .
-The remaining H bytes (H = 3.102.2. .3) correspond to the network address. -Criteria considered: → Geographical area (country) → Organization. -DNS servers are responsible for translating mnemonic textual Internet addresses into hard numeric Internet addresses.233. enterprise → Department → Host Domain Name System (DNS) -Mnemonic textual addresses are provided to facilitate the manipulation of internet addresses.1) are used for the host machine.49 -The R first bytes (R= 1.2.Addressing Internet address Consists of 4 bytes separated by periods Example: 136. -InterNIC Register: organization in charge of the allocation of the address ranges corresponding to networks.
the port number. . -The number of ports is not functionally limited. -A port is identified by a number. -An IP port will identify a specific application running on an Internet host machine. in contrast to serial communications where only 4 ports are allowed.Ports -An IP address identifies a host machine on the Internet. -There are some port numbers which are dedicated for specific applications.
using direct and systematic translation between protocols. → B-router or Bridge/Router: a single device that combines both the functions of bridge and router.Interconnection -Networks of low capacity may be connected together via a backbone network which is a network of high capacity such as a FDDI network. . → Gateway: a network device that connects two different systems. a WAN network etc. networks interconnection is achieved using one or several of the following devices: →Bridge: a computer or device that links two similar LANs based on the same protocol. -LANs and WANs can be interconnected via T1 or T3 digital leased lines -According to the protocols involved. → Router: a communication computer that connects different types of networks using different protocols.
Network Topology Diagram The specification of the network topology diagram requires the definition of the characteristics and entities underlying the network: -Geographical locations of the different components or subnets involved in the network. and gateways. . repeaters. -Description of the LAN topology -Description of the WAN topology -Description of the network connectors such as routers. bridges.
which defines the kinds and formats of the messages exchanged. which specifies the action taken by each entity when specific events occur. Protocols -Define the rules that govern the communications between two computers connected to the network. and the semantic. sequence and flow controls etc. error detection and recovery. -A protocol specification consists of the syntax. Example: HTTP protocol for communication between web browsers and servers. .2. -Roles: addressing and routing of messages.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Overview -TCP provides by using IP packets a basic service that does guarantee safe delivery: →error detection →safe data transmission →assurance that data are received in the correct order -Before sending data. TCP requires that the computers communicating establish a connection (connection-oriented protocol). .
. using sequence and sequence acknowledge numbers. -Packets are numbered. → There are 65. -TCP does so by breaking up the data stream into separate IP packets.536 different TCP ports (sockets) through which every TCP/IP machine can talk. and reassembled on arrival.-TCP provides support for sending and receiving arbitrary amounts of data as one big stream of byte data (IP is limited to 64Kb). -TCP also improves the capability of IP by specifying port numbers.
without any further verification. -Provides only support for data transmission from one end to the other. every machine has two sets of 65. -Connectionless protocol. . -The main interest of UDP is that since it does not make further verification. -Has the same packet-size limit (64Kb) as IP.536 different ports. -Useful for sending small size data in a repetitive way such as time information. it is very fast. without any error detection facility. -Hence. -Provides also 65.User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Overview -Datagram protocol also built on top of IP. but allows for port number specification.536 ports: one for TCP and the other for UDP.
4. -Telnet (Terminal Protocol) allows a user to connect to a remote host in terminal mode. -SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) allows the management of the network. -SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) defines a basic service for electronic mails. several services have been developed in order to homogenize applications of same nature: -FTP (File Transfer Protocol) allows the transfer of collection of files between two machines connected to the Internet. -NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) allows the constitution of communication groups (newsgroups) organized around specific topics. .5 Internet Application Protocols On top of TCP/IP.
Bandwidth • Data rate measured in bits (not bytes) per seconds • Kbps (Kilobits per seconds) – 125 chars/sec • Mbps (Megabits per seconds) – 1.250 chars/sec • Gbps (Gigabits per seconds) – 12.500 chars/sec .
Connecting to the Internet • Requirement – A computer or PDA or cell phone – An account with an ISP (Internet Service Provider) – A modem (modulator/demodulator) for dial-up services or a NIC (Network Interface Card) for DSL/Cable services .
Home Network (single machine) Wall Jack DSL/Cable Modem USB/Ethernet Cable .
Home Network (multiple machines) Wall Jack DSL/Cable Modem Hub/Switch/Router USB/Ethernet Cable .
Home Network (multiple machines) Wall Jack Ethernet Cable DSL/Cable Modem Hub/Switch/Router .
Home Wireless Network Wall Jack Ethernet Cable DSL/Cable Modem Hub/Switch/Router .
Connection Types • • • • • LAN WLAN Dial-up Services Broadband Services WAN .
wikipedia. such as home or building • Usually connected using Ethernet – A standard on how computers communicate over a shared media (cable) Old: BNC connector for coaxial cable New: RJ45 for twisted pair cable http://en.jpg .org/wiki/Image:Ethernet_RJ45_connector_p1160054.org/wiki/Image:BNC_connector.wikipedia.LAN (Local Area Network) • A network of computers that are in the same physical location.jpg http://en.
LAN (Local Area Network) • Ethernet Standard – 10BaseT • 10Mbps (Mega bits per second) – 100BaseT • 100Mbps – 1000BaseT • 1000Mbps or 1Gbps • Correction from the book (pg. 10) – Why do we get faster connection at work or on campus than at home? .
LAN (Local Area Network) • Question: Can 2 computers communicate by connecting each other using an Ethernet cable back-to-back? .
eg.WLAN (Wireless LAN) • Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) – A wireless technology that connects computers without cables • Access Point (AP) – A device (base station) that connects wireless devices together – Usually connected to a wired-network • ESSID (Extended Service Set ID) – A “name” for the AP. mobilenet • Hotspot – The area covered by wireless access points .
54Mbps 2.54Mbps – 802.11Mbps – 802.4G 5G • Security – WEP (Wired Equivalen Privacy) – WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) – To prevent wardriving .11g .11a .WLAN (Wireless LAN) • Standard – 802.11b .
8/33.6 Kbps • 56 Kbps .4/28.Dial-up Services • Modem – Modulator/demodulator – A device that converts analog signal to digital (modulation) and vice versa (demodulation) – Speed • 1200/2400/9600 bps • 14.
Dial-up Services • ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network – 2 data channel (56K each) – 1 voice channel .
Broadband Services • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) – A technology that provides digital data transmission over unused frequencies on traditional telephone lines – For example. ADSL (Asymmetric DSL): DL > UL – Speed • Downlink – 128Kbps .800Kbps – Need a DSL modem – Splitters are needed to separate the voice and data signal .4Mbps • Uplink – 64Kbps .
128Kbps~1Mbps – Need a cable modem .Broadband Services • Cable – A technology that provides digital data transmission over cable TV infrastructure – Speed • Downlink – 128Kbps .3~5Mbps • Uplink – 64Kbps .
1Mbps • Uplink – 50Kbps .Broadband Services • Satellite – A technology that provide digital data transmission over satellites – Speed • Downlink – 500Kbps .100Kbps – Need a satellite dish .
5Mbps) – T3 (45Mbps) – OC3 (155Mbps) – OC12 (622Mbps) – OC48 (2. such as connections between cities • Usually connected using leased line – T1 (1.4Gbps) Telecommunication lines Fiber optic lines .WAN (Wide Area Network) • A LAN spans a large geographic area.
Hub/Switch/Router • To connect multiple segments of networks into a larger one • Hub – A multiport repeater to enhance signal within the same LAN • Switch – Like hub but with intelligent – Better performance • Router – Forward packets from one LAN to another .
Intranet vs. Internet
– A private network that is contained within an enterprise – Could be LANs and WANs
– A public network of networks
• Both are using TCP/IP
• A family of protocols that makes the Internet works • The Robustness Principle
– “Be liberal in what you accept, and conservative in what you send” - Jon Postel
Application Layer Eg. WWW, FTP, IRC, Email, telnet, … Transport Layer Eg. TCP, UDP Network Layer Eg. IP Data Segments
Link Layer Eg. Ethernet, WiFi
Physical Layer Eg. Ethernet Cable, fiber-optics
• Seen in local area networks .Hubs Reference to equipment • A hub is the place where data converges from one or more directions and is forwarded out in one or more directions.
Gateways • A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. in terms of routing. • Host nodes are computer of network users and the computers that serve contents (such as Web pages). the network consists of gateway nodes and host nodes. • Gateway nodes are computers that control traffic within your company’s network or at your local internet service provider (ISP) . On the internet.
Routers • A router is a device or a software in a computer that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination. • Allow different networks to communicate with each other • A router creates and maintain a table of the available routes and their conditions and uses this information along with distance and cost algorithms to determine the best route for a given packet. . • A packet will travel through a number of network points with routers before arriving at its destination.
"passing" those known to be within the same LAN. . and forwarding those known to be on the other interconnected LAN (or LANs). Ethernet or token ring). • A bridge examines each message on a LAN.Bridge • a bridge is a product that connects a local area network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol (for example.
e. • Router: device to interconnect SIMILAR networks.g. and Macintosh and IBM LANs and equipment .What is the difference between? • Bridge: device to interconnect two LANs that use the SAME logical link control protocol but may use different medium access control protocols. similar protocols and workstations and servers • Gateway: device to interconnect DISSIMILAR protocols and servers.
.Switches • Allow different nodes of a network to communicate directly with each other. • Allow several users to send information over a network at the same time without slowing each other down.
What is ethernet? • A group of standards for defining a local area network that includes standards in cabling and the structure of the data sent over those cables as well as the hardware that connects those cables.5 Token Ring Specification . data formats.3 Ethernet Specification – Great detail specifying cable types. and procedures for transferring that data through those cables • IEEE 802. • Independent of the network architecture • Flavors of ethernet • IEEE 802.
.Network Interface Card (NIC) • Every computer and most devices (e. a network printer) is connected to network through an NIC.g. In most desktop computers. this is an Ethernet card (10 or 100 Mbps) that is plugged into a slot on the computer motherboard.
3) . Ethernet transmits frames of data across baseband cables using CSMA/CD (IEEE 802.How does Ethernet work? • Using MAC addresses to distinguish between machines.
g. The MAC address has two parts of 3 bytes long.What is a MAC Address? • Media Access Control (MAC) Address – are the physical address of any device. . a NIC in a computer on the network. The first 3 bytes specify the company that made the NIC and the second 3 bytes are the serial number of the NIC. e.
Introduction to Computer Networks INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER NETWORKS .
Introduction to Computer Networks Computer Networks Computer network connects two or more autonomous computers. can be located . The computers geographically anywhere.
Building or a Campus) is called LAN (Local Area Network) Network in a City is call MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) Network spread geographically (Country or across Globe) is called WAN (Wide Area Network) .Introduction to Computer Networks LAN. MAN & WAN Network in small geographical Area (Room.
databases) Search Capability (WWW) Communication Email Message broadcast Remote computing Distributed processing (GRID Computing) .Introduction to Computer Networks Applications of Networks Resource Sharing Hardware (computing resources. printers) Software (application software) Information Sharing Easy accessibility from anywhere (files. disks.
and other devices are connected.Introduction to Computer Networks Network Topology The network topology defines the way in which computers. A network topology describes the layout of the wire and devices as well as the paths used by data transmissions. printers. .
all the devices on a bus topology are connected by one single cable. .Introduction to Computer Networks Bus Topology Commonly referred to as a linear bus.
When installed.Introduction to Computer Networks Star & Tree Topology The star topology is the most commonly used architecture in Ethernet LANs. . switches. like bridges. When used with network devices that filter frames or packets. this topology significantly reduces the traffic on the wires by sending packets only to the wires of the destination host. and routers. Larger networks use the extended star topology also called tree topology. the star topology resembles spokes in a bicycle wheel.
The frame then continues around the ring until it finds the destination node. If a node wants to transmit data. . Single ring – All the devices on the network share a single cable Dual ring – The dual ring topology allows data to be sent in both directions. it adds the data as well as the destination address to the frame. which takes the data out of the frame.Introduction to Computer Networks Ring Topology A frame travels around the ring. stopping at each node.
. It is used in WANs to interconnect LANs and for mission critical networks like those used by banks and financial institutions. Implementing the mesh topology is expensive and difficult.Introduction to Computer Networks Mesh Topology The mesh topology connects all devices (nodes) to each other for redundancy and fault tolerance.
Introduction to Computer Networks Network Components Physical Media Interconnecting Devices Computers Networking Software Applications .
Introduction to Computer Networks Networking Media Networking media can be defined simply as the means by which signals (data) are sent from one computer to another (either by cable or wireless means). .
Wireless Access Modems etc. Points. Switches. Routers.Introduction to Computer Networks Networking Devices HUB. .
and other services in a central computer that is continuously available to respond to client requests. . The server contains the file. security.Introduction to Computer Networks Computers: Clients and Servers In a client/server network arrangement. print. application. network services are located in a dedicated computer whose only function is to respond to the requests of clients.
Introduction to Computer Networks Networking Protocol: TCP/IP .
Introduction to Computer Networks Applications E-mail Searchable Data (Web Sites) E-Commerce News Groups Internet Telephony (VoIP) Video Conferencing Chat Groups Instant Messengers Internet Radio .
Basics of Networking Class A . IP addresses with a first octet from 1 to 126 are part of this class. . such as a major international company might have.This class is for very large networks.
This class is used for medium-sized networks. Class B addresses also include the second octet as part of the Net identifier. . A good example is a large college campus. IP addresses with a first octet from 128 to 191 are part of this class.Basics of Networking Class B .
Class C addresses are commonly used for small to mid-size businesses. Class C addresses also include the second and third octets as part of the Net identifier. .Basics of Networking Class C . IP addresses with a first octet from 192 to 223 are part of this class.
The IP address 127.0.Basics of Networking LOOPBACK Loopback . This means that it is used by the host computer to send a message back to itself. .1 is used as the loopback address.0.
.Basics of Networking TYPES OF NETWORKS LAN – LOCAL AREA NETWORK IS A SMALL GEOGRAPHICAL AREA SUCH AS OUR SCHOOL BOARD. WAN – WIDE AREA NETWORK IS A NETWORK USED OVER AN EXTREMELY LARGE GEOGRAPHICAL AREA SUCH AS THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. MAN – METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK IS A NETWORK OVER A LARGER GEOGRAPHICAL AREA SUCH AS THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT.
THEY ARE: BUS TOPOLOGY STAR TOPOLOGY RING TOPOLOGY .Basics of Networking NETWORKS ARE BROKEN INTO 3 TOPOLOGIES.
.Basics of Networking BUS TOPOLOGY ALLOWS INFORMATION TO BE DIRECTED FROM ONE COMPUTER TO THE OTHER. LOTS OF BINARY COLLISION THOUGH.
. LESS COLLISIONS AND MOST EFFICIENT. ALL COMPUTERS ARE ATTACHED TO A HUB.Basics of Networking STAR TOPOLOGY IS THE MOST COMMON TYPE USED.
AS THE MESSAGE MOVES AROUND THE RING. IF THE COMPUTER IDENTIFIES THE TOKEN AS ITS OWN. THEN IT WILL PROCESS THE INFORMATION. A TOKEN IS ATTACHED TO THE MESSAGE BY THE SENDER TO IDENTIFY WHICH COMPUTER SHOULD RECEIVE THE MESSAGE.Basics of Networking RING TOPOLOGY.USES A TOKEN TO PASS INFORMATION FROM 1 COMPUTER TO THE OTHER. EACH COMPUTER EXAMINES THE TOKEN. .
Basics of Networking A DISADVANTAGE OF A TOKEN RING IS IF ONE COMPUTER IS BROKEN OR DOWN. . THE MESSAGE CANNOT BE PASSED TO THE OTHER COMPUTERS.
General Diagram Discover Use this address I’ll use this one Client OK DHCP Server Internet .
َQ & A Thanks Eng. Yassir Hassan Elamin .
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