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Chapter 2


2.1 Electrical Resistant

Resistance is a measure of how much an

object opposes the passage of electrons. The unit of electrical resistance is the ohm and it is represented by Every material has Resistance. Copper has a low resistance and wood has a high resistance. For example, a meter of copper has a resistance of only 1 Ohm but a metre of wood has a resistance of 10000000 ohm

Good conductors copper and aluminum

[low resistance]
Good resistor mica and paper [high


2.2 Ohms Law and Resistance

Ohms Law describe mathematically how

voltage, current and resistance in a circuit are related. Ohms law can be stated as:


V= Voltage I = Current R = Resistance


Resistor - an electrical device that resists the

flow of electrical current

Usually made from metallic alloys and carbon

i R FIGURE 2.2 : Circuit symbol for resistor

2.3 Temperature effect, power absorption by resistor (Power Rating)

Resistor gives off heat when there is current

through it. The limit to the amount of heat that a resistor can give off is specified by its power rating. Power rating is the maximum amount of power that a resistor can dissipate without being damage by excessive heat build up. It determined mainly by physical composition, size and shape of the resistor. Ex: larger resistor surface area, more power can dissipate.

Metal-film resistor are available in standard

power rating from 1/8W to 1W. Power rating must be greater than max power the resistor can handle. Ex: a resistor can dissipate 0.75W, its rating should go for 1W Ideally, rating should twice value higher than actual power.

Example: Choose an adequate power rating for each of

metal film resistor.
I= 10mA

10 V

R 120

R 1000


P= I2R = (10mA)2(1000) = 0.1W At least 1/8W (0.125W) resistor should be used in this case.

(a) P=V2/R
=(10V)2/120 =0.833W So, we need to select a higher power rating resistor. 1W resistor should be used.

2.4 Nominal value and tolarance level, color code

Fixed resistor are available with large

selection of resistance and cannot be change Its come in Four Band Color Code and Five-Band Color Code.

Identifying resistors
The scheme is simple: The first two numbers are the first two significant digits of the resistance value, the third is a multiplier, and the fourth is the tolerance of the value. Each color corresponds to a certain number, shown in the chart below. The tolerance for a 4-band resistor will be 2%, 5%, or 10%.

FIGURE 2.3 : Identifying resistor



A) If the first band is green (5) the second

digit is blue (6) and the third band is orange (3), the value of the resistor is 56000 ohm. Because 1000 Ohm = 1 K, we have 56k B) red, red, yellow. So we have 2, 2, 0000 or 220K Ohm


Example: Find the resistance value in ohms and

percentage of tolerance for each resistor below:




2.5 Open & Short Circuit

Short Circuit
If R = 0, short circuit

v=iR=0, voltage is zero, current could be anything

Open Circuit
If R = , open circuit

lim v i 0 R R (Eq. 2. 4)
Current is zero, voltage could be anything

Conductance (kealiran)
Reciprocal of resistance, denoted by G.

Measure of how well an element will conduct electric

current. Unit = mho (ohm spelled back-ward) or Siemens.

1 G (Eq. 2. 5) R

= 1A/V

For the circuit shown below, calculate the voltage v, the conductance G, and the power p.
i + v -



Solution 2.1
For the circuit shown below, calculate the voltage v, the conductance G, and the power p. From the figure ,we know i = 2 mA =2 x 10-3 A, R = 10 k = 10 x 103
2mA 10k

i + v -

v = iR = 2 x 10-3 x 10 x 103 = 20 x 100 = 20 V G = 1/R = 1/ 10 x 103 = 1 x (10-1+(-3)) = 1 x 10 -4 Siemens p = iv = 2 x 10-3 x 20 = 4 x 101-3 = 4 x 10-2 W

Fixed Resistors

variable resistor

The voltage across a 5 K Ohm resistor is 16 V. Find the current through the resistor. 2. Find the hot resistance of a lightbulb rated 60 W, 120 V. 3. When the voltage across a resistor is 120 V, the current through it is 2.5 mA. Calculate its conductance.


G = 1/R = 1/ 48K =0.02 m Siemens