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Klemp (1980) A job competency is an underlying characteristic of a persons behaviour which results in an effective display of superior performance in a job.

Boyatzis (1982) competency is an underlying characteristic of the person which could be a motive, trait, skill, aspect of ones self image or social role, or a body of knowledge which he or she uses.

Hogg B (1989) competencies are the characteristics of a manger that lead to the demonstration of skills and abilities, which results in effective performance within an occupational area.
Dubois (1993) competency is the employees capacity to meet a jobs requirements by producing the job outputs at an expected level of quality within the constraints of the organizations internal and external environments.

Spencer & Spencer (1993) competency is an underlying characteristic of an individual that is casually related to criterionreferenced effecting and/or superior performance in a job situation. Steve Garrett competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization.

Features of Competency
Focus on sustained and superior performance Focus on strategy and business processes

Identifying and codifying elemental factors that determine superior performance

Behavioural emphasis Objectivity of measurement Transparency of the entire mechanism Positive approach Customization to suit specific circumstances and needs Provides information for formulating HR policies and Practices.

Types of competency
Elemental or task competency

Cognitive competency
Behavioural competency Functional competency.

Competence v/s Competency

Competence is the prescribed norm of knowledge, skills and abilities from the stand point of the organization in terms of expected performance what needs to be possessed approach Competency means the exhibited behaviour of actually putting to work the standard possessed in terms if the knowledge, skills and abilities to perform the job role on a consistent basis.

HR applications of Competency Method

Candidate appraisal and recruitment

Employee potential appraisal for promotion or functional staff

Employee training need identification

Employee performance diagnosis

Employee self-development initiatives Succession planning

Predecessors of competency method

Job evaluation

Expert panels
Organization surveys

Repertory grid systems

Behavioural event interviews

Competency mapping
CM is the process of identifying, describing and codifying key competencies relevant to the various positions of an organization. Competency mapping involves the systematic process adopted by an organization for the purposes of preparing a formal competency map for its positions.

Steps in competency mapping process

Defining the purpose of the competency model

Specifying and defining the performance criteria

Analyzing the performance criteria Collection of relevant data Formal development of the competency model Validation of the competency model Applying and evaluation of the competency model.

Need for competency mapping

To enable the firm to select the most promising business strategies To provide an effective basis for performance management to make it sound and effective To facilitate people in self- development To render the process of adapting changes smooth and least painful. To achieve a shift in supervision approach.