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THNH TU HY LP C I
Nhm 4

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Hy lp c i

Tng quan v Hy Lp

Nhng thnh tu ca vn minh Hy Lp c i

Kt lun

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I. Tng quan v Hy Lp

1.a l
Nm a Trung Hi, c v tr quan trng trong giao thng phng ng v phng ty Lnh th Hy lp c i gm: min nam bn o Ban cng, cc o trn bin gi, min ven bin ty tiu Ni y hnh thnh nn nhiu thnh ph quan trng v ni ting: Aten, trung tm kinh t chnh tr ca Hy Lp v Chu u.

Bin gi

I. Tng quan v Hy Lp 1. IA LY

Min lc a c th chia lm 3 vng (Bc, Trung, Nam b) do nhiu dy ni & eo t hp to nn: + Dy ni Tcmpin chia ct 2 min Bc - Trung. + Eo t Coranh chia ct 2 min Trung Nam.

I. Tng quan v Hy Lp

Vi cu trc a hnh a dng: + Nhiu ng bng tr ph, ph nhiu: Attch, Bxi, Thessallie thun li cho vic trng trt. + Nhiu vnh, hi cng, o ln thun li cho vic pht trin hng hi. + Li dng mt bin gi phng lng, s ni tip ko di ca cc o pht trin ngnh mu dch hng hi.

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ATHENS C I

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I. Tng quan v Hy Lp
C tr bc bn o Ban Cng v mt phn trung b Ngi Eling Ngi Ining Ngi Akng Ngi ning

2. C dn

C tr ng bng ttich C tr vng Bc bn o Plpned

C tr vng Bc bn o Plpned, o Crt v cc o khc pha Nam bin gi

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I. Tng quan v Hy Lp 3. S lc lch s Hy Lp c i


a. Thi k vn ho Crt v Myxen b. Thi k Hme c. Thi k cc thnh bang d. Thi k Maknia

THI K THNH BANG THI K HME THI K MAKNIA (th k XI-- IX TCN) ( VNk VIII-IV TCN) THI K th HA CRET-MYXEN y l vo nm 404trng nht trong lch Bt u nin k III n th (u thin thi k quan TCN k XII TCN) LchkvnHLkhng tn tai trong trongtu Thi Thi ki schoac c nhiu thnh hai s Hy Lpnyi. Cret phn nh khoang kinh t2m nibang quan trng nht: xpac v tp ki thi bt l cc cuc chin trang C 18 th sthnhIlit v ix ca Hme do ginh c tn lc vvn hoaa aten nhn cua nn thi vy Hme . Chu quyn gi l thuckMyxen la ngi . . . thnh 1 thnh y l giai on bang bo th v chnh Cc Xpac l bang ca HLcng ca x hi bin thnh ch AKeang. Thi ki huy cui nht cua vn hoang tr, Maknia hu ca lc hu v kinh t vn ha nhng li nguyn thy th ki XVI_XII TCN. hoa Myxenmnh v qun s chia lm 3 nc hng la t Th k III TCN Maknia X k ny ch ha giu ngho r rt ThiAten c v dng ccp hi phn HL; Xini; Ai nhng nh ln: Maknia xy chnh tr dn ch nht, nhng cha ra i Nh nc nc vn ha aten pht trin rc r vi nhiu tng i hng manh
thnh tu

II. Nhng thnh tu ch yu ca vn minh Hy Lp c i


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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VN HC CH VIT S HC NGH THUT KHOA HC T NHIN TRIT HC T CHC NH NC V LUT PHP TH THAO

1. VN HC
THN THOI

VN HC TH KICH

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1. VN HC a. Thn thoi Hy Lp Hy lp c kho tng ln v truyn thn thoi Truyn khai thin lp a, truyn v cc v thn, truyn v i sng x hi... Ni dung: phn nh nguyn vng sng ca nhn dn trong vic u tranh vi t nhin, cuc sng lao ng, cng rt gn gi vi i sng con ngi. Cung cp kho ti cho th, kch, iu khc v hi ha => nh hng quan trng vi nn ngh thut Hy Lp

Thn thoi Hy Lp

1. VN HC b. Th
Nha th Hme sng tc 2 tp s thi ni ting la I-li-t v -i-x I-li-t l bn anh hng ca chin trn, di 15.683 cu th v chia ra lm 24 khc ca, phn nh chn thc XH Hy Lp c i -i-x gm 12110 cu th, phn nh s chin thng tr v ca ngi Hy Lp. -i-x l bn anh hng ca ca c/s ha bnh.

1. VN HC
Thi k sau nh th Hme, l nh th ni

ting Hdit vi cc tp th : Gia ph cc


thn; Lao ng v ngy thng T th k VII VI TCN, bt u xut hin th tr tnh, vi nhiu tc gi ni ting : Acsilct , Xaph, Ancnrng, Panha,

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1. VN HC

c.Kch
Bi kch Nhng au kh v xung t trong bi kch Hy Lp l ting vang ca mt thi i ln ang u tranh khai ph v phc hng t nc. Hi kch Hi kch ca Hy Lp ch yu l cp n cuc sng lt vt trong trong i sng. Khi trnh din th cch dng t, t cu, chia mn, bi cnh,... u t do hn bi kch nhiu.

1. VN HC
Mt s tc phm tiu biu trong th loi bi kch: PRMT B XING ca Tc gi Estin L v bi kch ni ting t lu c nh hng i vi nn vn ha th gii. P LM VUA ca Tc gi Sphcl V kch dng nh cho rng con ngi ch l con ri trn ci sn khu mnh mng ca cuc i m s mnh l ngi iu khin. M ca Tc gi pirt L mt v bi kch v tnh yu, gia nh nhng rt giu ngha x hi

1. VN HC
- i vi hi kch th A-rix-to-phan

(450-388TCN) l nh sng tc hi
kch tiu biu ca Hy Lp c i. ng

sng tc 44 v kch, li ngy nay


cn 11 v. Nhng v kch ni ting: Nhng k s; n ong b v, n chim

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2. CH VIT
Ch vit ca Hi Lp xut hin t thi Crete Mycenae Khi b ngi Dorien thng tr, loi ch trn b mai mt Cui th k VII TCN, khi phc li ch vit trn c s vn t ca ngi Phoenicia Nm 403 TCN, NN Athens thng nht quy nh th thc vit t tri sang phi v gim t 40 ch ci cn 27 ch (sau ny con 24 ch)

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2. CH VIT
Bng ch ci Hi Lp Ch Hoa: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Ch Thng: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (), , , , , , .

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2. CH VIT
H thng ch ci Hi Lp t n trnh khi qut ha rt cao T ch ci Hy Lp c sau ny hnh thnh nn ch ci Latinh v ch ci Cyrill (ca cc ngn ng gc Slav). l

cc c s ch ci m nhiu dn tc trn
th gii ngy nay ang s dng

3.S hc
Th k th V TCN Hy Lp mi chnh thc c s hc thnh vn.

Cc nh s hc ni ting l:
Hrt (484-425 TCN) l nh s hc u tin ca Hy Lp Cc tc phm s hc ca ng gm c 9 quyn, trong tc phm s hc quan trng nht l Lch s ca cuc chin tranh Hy Lp Ba T.

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3. S HC
Tuxit (460-395 TCN) l nh s hc c v tr quan

trng ca Hy Lp c i. Tc phm tiu biu:


Cuc chin tranh Plpned. Mc ch ca tc

phm l cho i sau bit r rng v qu kh


Xnphn (430-359 TCN): trong s cc tc phm

ca ng quyn lch s Hy Lp l quan trng nht.

4. NGH THUT
a) Kin trc

Athens l mt trong nhng thnh ph lch s ni ting nht trn th gii. Athens l ni c nhiu cng trnh kin trc tiu biu: n, miu, rp ht, sn vn ng,

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4. NGH THUT N PARTHENON


c xem l kit tc v kin trc v l biu tng ca kin trc Hi Lp c.
Ta lc trn nh i Acropolis, di 70m, rng 314m, cao 14m, th n thn Athena, thn bo h ca Athens.

c coi l ngi n p nht Hy Lp v c lit vo danh sch 7 k quan ca th gii c i.

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N PARTHENON

4. NGH THUT
n Erechtheion c gi l Khn i ca cc n Caryatide, mang mt dng kin trc c o L n duy nht c mt bng khng i xng Hy Lp v n tr thnh 1 kit tc

4. NGH THUT
Ngoi 2 ngi n ni ting trn cn c mt s cng trnh tiu biu khc nh: Tu vin Dhafno, tu vin Byzatien. y l nhng kit tc thi Trung c, ta nh c xy bng nhiu mu ghp li Bo tng kho c hc Quc gia l kho tng ngh thut c in ca Hy Lp Nh ht Dionysus, nh ht c trng Hy Lp

n th k V TCN c nhiu kit tc nh: Bc tng thn Hermes trng gi thn Dionysius l tc phm iu khc duy nht cn st li do 1 trong 6 bc thy iu khc ca Hy Lp to nn. Mi-rng: tc phm thnh cng nht l lc s nm a.

Bc tng thn Hermes trng gi thn Dionysius.

Tng Lc s nm a st

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4. NGH THUT
Phi-i-t: tc phm ni ting l pho tng N thn A-th-na (thn ph h) c lm bng vng khi v ng voi.
Thn Hra

Tng n thn Athna

P-li-clt: tc phm ni ting l: ngi cm do, v c bit l thn H-ra c khm vng v ng

C. Hi ha
Ngh thut Hy Lp c i c ca ngi l thi k hong kim ca cc th loi hi ha tuy nhin hin nay cn li rt t tc phm Nhng ha s tiu biu ca Hy Lp c i: P-li-nht, A-p-l-o.

Bc bch ha u b trong cung in Knossos ao Crete

Binh gm Exekias Asin chi xc xc vi Ajax (nm 540 - 530 TCN)

Hy Lp c i c nhng cng hin quan trng v cc mt Ton hc, Thin vn hc, Vt l hc, Y hc, .vi cc nh khoa hc ni ting nh asimet, Pitago

Talt (HL) pht minh

ra t l thc
tnh c chiu cao ca

Kim t thp.
Pytago (HL) tm ra nh l v quan h gia ba gc trong tam gic vung (l Pytago).
Talet vi nh l ca mnh

clt (HL) tm ra nh clt c s ca mn Hnh hc.

Acsimt (HL) tnh c s pi (); Th tch & din tch ton phn ca nhiu hnh khi.

Talt tnh c ngy nht thc (28-5-558) chnh xc. Pytago nhn thc c qu t hnh cu & chuyn ng theo qu o nht nh.

Arixtc tm ra thuyt h thng Mt tri. Eratxten tnh c di vng kinh tuyn Tri t l 39.700 km & tnh c gc to nn bi hong o v xch o.

Acsimt tm ra nguyn l n by, nguyn l quan trng v thy lc hc. Ngoi ra, ng cn pht minh ra my bm nc, knh hi t, Pytago tm ra cao m thanh ca mt si dy cng hai u khi dao ng

My bn ca Acsimt

Hipcrt cha bnh bng bin php ung thuc hoc m x, c mnh danh l Thy t ca y hc phng Ty.

ng cng a ra li th o c y khoa, ngha cho n by gi

Nh giai phu hc Hcrpin chng minh rng no l kh quan t duy, cam gic do h thn kinh truyn at. ng bit dng thuc m phu thut bnh nhn. Claoit vit sch Phng php cha bnh.

Tm li, cch y trn di 2000 nm, nn khoa hc ca Hy Lp & La M c i c nhng thnh tu rt ln. Nhng thnh tu y t c s cho s pht trin ca khoa hc phng Ty thi cn & hin i.

Hy Lp & La M l qu hng ca nn trit hc phng Ty. Trit hc Hy Lp rt a dng

Trit hc duy vt

Trit hc duy tm

C rt nhiu nh trit hc bn v ngun gc ca v tr & u ly gii t nhin gii thch v gii t nhin tuy nhin cha chun xc. Mt s tc gi l: Talet, Anaximngr, Anaximen...

Hraclit (540-480 TCN) c coi l ngi sng lp ra php bin chng mcrt (460370 TCN), nh trit hc duy vt ln nht ca Hy Lp c i. ng cho rng: Ngun gc ca vn vt l nguyn t & chn khng. ng c Mcngghen coi l B c bch khoa trong s nhng ngi Hy Lp.

C nhiu nh trit hc duy tm ni ting. Gocgit cp n quan im: tn ti khng tn ti. Xcrt l ngi u tin a ra phng php quy np & nh ngha.

Nh duy tm ln nht Hy Lp c i l Platng. + ng m trng dy trit hc Aten gi l Acami. + ng l ngi xy dng h thng hon chnh u tin ca ch ngha duy tm khch quan + ng cn c nhng ng gp v mt M hc, Gio dc, Chnh tr, .

PLATONG

Nh trit hc v i nht HL c i l Arixtt b Bch khoa ton th ca HL. + ng c cng lao rt ln trong vic sng to ra mn Logic hc. + ng cng c ng gp trong cc lnh vc khc nh: M hc, Gio dc, Sinh hc, Vn hc, . + T tng ca ng c nh hng rt ln & lu di phng Ty.

a. b.

T chc nh nc Lut php

a) T chc nh nc
Nh nc Hy Lp c i xut hin trn c s tan r ca ch th tc v hu nh khng c s can thip ca bo lc bn ngoi. Nh nc Hy Lp c i xut hin di dng nhng quc gia thnh bang (polis). Mi thnh bang u c c trng ca mt nh nc hon chnh. Nn chuyn chnh ca giai cp qu tc ch n, t chc nh nc pht trin theo hai th ch: Cng ha qu tc tiu biu l thnh bang Spart Cng ha dn ch (dn ch ch thc) tiu biu l thnh bang Athens.

a) T chc nha nc

Ngi ta cho rng, dn ch l Spart l mt thnh Athens c thnh lp sn phm ca ngi Hy s lin minh t bang bo th v trn c Lp.
chnh tr, lc hu v kinh t, mt nh nc qun phit, tn bo v km hm s pht trin xu hng dn ch cc thnh bang khc. nguyn, bnh ng ca 4 b lc. Nh nc Athens l mt th ch dn ch ht sc cao v bo m nhng quyn li kinh t, chnh tr ca nhng cng dn t do.

b) Lut php
B lut c nht ca Hy Lp l b lut racng, c nhng hnh pht rt khc nghit, c khc trn ni cng cng. V sau Solon hy b lut php ca racng v ban hnh lut mi dn ch hn Cc quc gia phng Ty sau ny chu /h nhiu v h thng php lut v cch t chc nh nc t Hy Lp c i.

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8. TH THAO
Th thao Olympia ca Hy Lp c i th hin tinh thn thng v v tn ngng ca cc thnh ph Hy Lp, c t chc 4 nm 1 ln ti Olympia, Hy Lp, s mn thi u c lc ln n 292 b mn. Th vn hi Olympic ngy nay chnh l s bt ngun t th thao ca Hy Lp.

9. QUN I

c xy dng theo ch ngha v qun s, thi hn thc hin ngha v qun s l hai nm Ap dng i vi n ng t do t 18-60 tui n ng n l tham gia theo ch tnh nguyn. Nhng ngi gi chc v trong b my nh nc c min thi hnh ngha v qun s.

9. QUN I Ngoi ch ngha v qun s, cng dn Hy Lp l nam gii phi thc hin lnh ng vin qun s do i hi cc cng dn quyt nh khi c tnh trng chin tranh.

Ch huy qun i Hy Lp c i l 10 v Tng qun do dn bu


Khi phc v trong qun i, cc ch huy v binh s c tr lng cao

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