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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Main parts of a three phase induction Motor 4 pole stator's design with 72 slots using PCAD 3-Phase,72 slots 50Hz 10 pole machine Motor's type of connections Star delta starter circuit Fault finding


3-phase induction motors are simple, rugged, low cost, and easy to maintain. They run at essentially constant speed from zero-to-full load. Therefore, they are the motors most frequently encountered in industry.


Main parts of a three phase induction Motor

*A stator consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow, cylindrical core of stacked laminations. Slots on the internal circumference of the stator house the stator winding.

Steel core

cylindrical core

. Slots

. Slots

Laminated paper Laminated paper

*Wired stator

Copper wires

Copper wires

*Rotor: consists of a shaft (which provides the mechanical energy),rotor iron and windings in the case of a wound rotor type(also called slip ring machine) or a cage made of copper or aluminum for so called squirrel cage machines. Both, stator and rotor must be wound for the same number of poles to guarantee proper functioning of the machine




* 2 Pole generator stator and 2 pole wound rotor 24 slots 2 pole stator

2 Pole rotor windings

2. 4 pole stator's design with 72 slots using PCAD

Pole phase groups


Coil pitch

Q=pm (number of coils per group)

Z/number of pole

Phase group=Z/2Q

Pole pitch

Pole pitch=Z/2P

Coil pitch= 2/Z

3. 3-Phase, 72 slots 50Hz 10 pole machine

Pole Pitch 1 Slot No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Angle 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 Phase a a a c' c' b b b [a] S/P=72/10=36/5=S'/P' Pole Pitch 2 Slot No 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Angle 20 45 70 95 120 145 170 Phase a' a' c c b' b' b' [b] Pole Pitch 3 Slot No 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Angle 15 40 65 90 115 140 165 Phase a a c' c' c' b b Angle=(10*180)/72=25 P'=5 (Basic unit) S'=36 M=72/(3*10)=2.4(Fractional)

Formulas used

Pole Pitch 4 Slot No 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Angle 10 35 60 85 110 135 160 Phase a' a' c c c b' b' [c] Pole Pitch 5 Slot No 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Angle 5 30 55 80 105 130 155 Phase a a a c' c' b b Phase a (3,2.2,2,3)=12 Phase b (2, Phase c (3,3,2,2,2)=12 36 Coils

Phase Sequence abc

4. Motor's type of connections


Star connection

5. Star delta starter circuit

Power lines

Relay control circuit and switches

Three phase contactors star delta connection

*Star Delta starter Circuit diagram

.Power circuit
L1 L2 L3

Relay circuit 3 Phase incoming voltage

E/S Overload Stop Start C1


Contactor 1 Contactor 2 Contactor 3

T1 C2 C3

Set time

Ov erload




30KW motor

6. Fault finding

Motor will not start. Supply or Starter trips out at start. Motor Starts but has not torque. Motor does not reach full speed. Motor takes a long time to reach full speed. Motor overheating. No load amps in excess of Full load amps. Mechanical noise or Vibration. Noisy bearings. Bearing Overheating Motor amps in excess of nameplate full load amps on load. Excessive electrical noise. Unbalanced amps in different phases when motor on load. Motor runs wrong direction.

Heat radiation of the windings, burning of winding old copper windings. The three phase impedances will be modified. One needs to measure the voltages, currents, and powers in order to see if the system connection is right.

Burned copper wires

If the electrical wiring installation is old, or has been extensively altered or extended, or appears suspect, a Surveyor is likely to recommend that it is inspected and tested by an electrician Whenever one gets across burned conductors, or old copper wires, the motor's stator will need to be rewind. To alleviate heat radiation the stator is made of fins which increase the effective surface.