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Influence of Culture on Consumer Behavior

Culture

The sum total of learned beliefs, values, and customs that serve to regulate the consumer behavior of members of a particular society.

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Chapter Eleven Slide 2

Part III
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1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Consumer and Cultural Influences

The Characteristics of Culture


Culture is invented
Culture is learnt Culture is shared Culture satisfies needs Cultures are similar but different Culture is not static

Copyright 2008, Satish K Bhatra, S H H Kazmi

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Consumer Behaviour

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Part III
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Consumer and Cultural Influences

Cultural Values
Cultural values are enduring beliefs that a given behaviour or outcome is desirable or good (Milton J. Rokeach). Our values, as enduring beliefs, serve as standards that guide our behaviour across situations and over time. Social values represent "normal" behaviour for a society or group. Personal values define "normal" behaviour for an individual. Personal values mirror the individual's choices made from the variety of social values to which that individual gets exposed.
Rokeach Value Scale (RVS) is used by asking respondents to rank the

importance of goals and ways of conduct that can be analysed by ethnicity, religion, age, gender, or any other variables that might be of interest in consumer
analysis.
Cont.
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Excel Books

Part III
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Consumer and Cultural Influences

Instrumental values such as loving, helpfulness, and honesty etc. are needed to

achieve equality, which is a terminal value. The seven categories are:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Maturity Security Pro-social behaviour (doing nice things to others) Restrictive conformity Enjoyment in life Achievement Self-direction.
Cont.
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Consumer and Cultural Influences

Other-oriented Values

Self-oriented Values

Individual/Collective
Youth/Age Extended/Limited Family Masculine/Feminine Competitive/Cooperative Diversity/Uniformity Cleanliness Performance/Status Tradition/Change Risk-Taking/Security Problem Solving/Fatalistic Nature

Active/Passive
Sensual Gratification/Abstinence Material/Non-material Hard Work/Leisure Religious/Secular

Environment-oriented Values

Copyright 2008, Satish K Bhatra, S H H Kazmi

Consumer Behaviour

(2nd Edition)

Satish K Batra / S H H Kazmi

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A Theoretical Model of Cultures Influence on Behavior - Figure 11.2

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter Eleven Slide 7

To Which Cultural Value or Values Is This Products Advertising Appealing?

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Chapter Eleven Slide 8

Convenience in Food Preparation

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Chapter Eleven Slide 9

The Invisible Hand of Culture


Each individual perceives the world through his own cultural lens

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Chapter Eleven Slide 10

Culture Satisfies Needs


Food and Clothing Needs vs. Luxury

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Chapter Eleven Slide 11

In Terms of Culture, Do You Consider This Product to Be a Good Morning Beverage? Why or Why Not?

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Chapter Eleven Slide 12

Many Will Say NO Due to Lack of Nutritional Value and Competing Products (Coffee).

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Chapter Eleven Slide 13

Culture Is Learned
Issues
Enculturation and acculturation Language and symbols Ritual Sharing of culture Enculturation
The learning of ones own culture

Acculturation
The learning of a new or foreign culture

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Chapter Eleven Slide 14

Culture Is Learned
Issues
Enculturation and acculturation Language and symbols Ritual Sharing of culture Without a common language ,shared meaning could not exist Marketers must choose appropriate symbols in advertising Marketers can use known symbols for associations
Chapter Eleven Slide 15

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How Does a Symbol Convey the Products Advertised Benefits?

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Chapter Eleven Slide 16

They Provide Additional Meaning to the Ad.

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Chapter Eleven Slide 17

Culture Is Learned
Issues
Enculturation and acculturation Language and symbols Ritual Sharing of culture

A ritual is a type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps Rituals extend over the human life cycle Marketers realize that rituals often involve products (artifacts)

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Chapter Eleven Slide 18

Discussion Questions
What are some rituals (religious, educational, social) that you have experienced? What artifacts or products were part of that ritual? How did marketers influence the choice of these artifacts?

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Chapter Eleven Slide 19

Selected Rituals and Associated Artifacts Table 11.2


SELECTED RITUALS Wedding TYPICAL ARTIFACTS White gown (something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue) U.S. Savings Bond, silver baby spoon Card, present, cake with candles Catered party, card and gift, display of photos of the couples life together Pen, U.S. Savings Bond, card, wristwatch Candy, card, flowers Champagne, party, fancy dress

Birth of child Birthday 50th Wedding anniversary Graduation Valentines Day New Years Eve

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Chapter Eleven Slide 20

Culture Is Learned
Issues
Enculturation and acculturation Language and symbols Ritual Sharing of Culture To be a cultural characteristic, a belief, value, or practice must be shared by a significant portion of the society Culture is transferred through family, schools, houses of worship, and media Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 21

Facial Beauty Ritual of a Young TV Advertising Sales Representative - Table 11.3


1. I pull my hair back with a headband. 2. I take all of my makeup off with LOreal eye makeup remover. 3. Next, I use a Q-tip with some moisturizer around my eyes to make sure all eye makeup is removed. 4. I wash my face with Noxzema facial wash. 5. I apply Clinique Dramatically Different Lotion to my face, neck, and throat. 6. If I have a blemish, I apply Clearasil Treatment to the area to dry it out. 6. Twice weekly (or as necessary) I use Aapri Facial Scrub to remove dry and dead skin. 7. Once a week, I apply Clinique Clarifying Lotion 2 with a cotton ball to my face and throat to remove deep-down dirt and oils. 8. Once every three months, I get a professional salon facial to deep-clean my pores.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 22

Culture is Dynamic
Evolves because it fills needs Certain factors change culture
Technology Population shifts Resource shortages Wars Changing values Customs from other countries
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The Measurement of Culture


Content Analysis Consumer Fieldwork Value Measurement Instruments

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Chapter Eleven Slide 24

Content Analysis

A method for systematically analyzing the content of verbal and/or pictorial communication. The method is frequently used to determine prevailing social values of a society.

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Chapter Eleven Slide 25

Which Cultural Value Is Portrayed, and How So?

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Chapter Eleven Slide 26

Progress The Fridge has Superior Design

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Chapter Eleven Slide 27

Which Cultural Value Is This Ad Stressing, and How So?

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Chapter Eleven Slide 28

Fitness and Health Low Calorie

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Chapter Eleven Slide 29

Consumer Fieldwork
Field Observation
Natural setting Subject unaware Focus on observation of behavior

Participant Observation

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Chapter Eleven Slide 30

American Core Values

Achievement and success Material comfort

Activity

Efficiency and practicality

Progress

Individualism

Freedom

External conformity Fitness and health

Humanitarianism

Youthfulness

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Chapter Eleven Slide 32

American Core Values

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Chapter Eleven Slide 33

Scale to Measure Attitude Toward Helping Others


Attitude toward helping others (AHO)
People should be willing to help others who are less fortunate Helping troubled people with their problems is very important to me People should be more charitable toward others in society People in need should receive support from others
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 34

Discussion Questions
Have you observed changes in any of the core values over the past 4 years? Why did those changes occur? How have they affected marketers?

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Chapter Eleven Slide 35

Toward a Shopping Culture


Is shopping what we do to create value in our lives? The younger generation is shopping more This has an effect on credit card debt

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Chapter Eleven Slide 36

Subculture

A distinct cultural group that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex society.

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Chapter Twelve Slide 37

Part III
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Consumer and Cultural Influences

Aspects of Sub-cultures

The influence of sub-culture on consumer behaviour depends on factors such as


sub-cultural distinctiveness, sub-cultural homogeneity and sub-cultural exclusion. Sub-cultural distinctiveness Sub-cultural homogeneity Sub-cultural exclusion

Sub-cultures may be based on religion, region, language, age, gender and many

other differences. As in most other countries, one may easily notice several subcultures in India. Out of several sub-cultures, only some are important from the marketers' point of view for formulating separate marketing programmes. Much depends on the relevance of a product category to a particular subculture.
Cont.

Copyright 2008, Satish K Bhatra, S H H Kazmi

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Consumer Behaviour

(2nd Edition)

Satish K Batra / S H H Kazmi

Excel Books

Part III
C11
Consumer and Cultural Influences

Religious sub-cultures: Religious groups

can be regarded as sub-cultures because


of traditions and customs that are tied to their beliefs and passed on from one generation to the next.

Ad based on Religious Beliefs of the Largest Sub-culture in India. Durga, the Devi is believed as the destroyer of all evils.

Cont.
Copyright 2008, Satish K Bhatra, S H H Kazmi

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Consumer Behaviour

(2nd Edition)

Satish K Batra / S H H Kazmi

Excel Books

Part III
C11
Consumer and Cultural Influences

Regional sub-cultures: Distinct regional sub-cultures arise due to climatic conditions, the natural environment and resources, language and significant social and cultural events. Such groups can be identified as having distinct and homogenous needs, tastes, lifestyles and, values. Anyone who has travelled across India would have probably noted many regional differences in language and consumers' consumption behaviour, particularly dresses, food and drink.

Targeting consumers in the Hindi-speaking belt of North India

Cont.

Copyright 2008, Satish K Bhatra, S H H Kazmi

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Consumer Behaviour

(2nd Edition)

Satish K Batra / S H H Kazmi

Excel Books

Part III
C11
Consumer and Cultural Influences
Ad focusing on working women

In

recent

times,

number

of

advertisers
importance mothers

have
of

realised

the

communicating

appropriately with working women and

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Consumer Behaviour

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Satish K Batra / S H H Kazmi

Excel Books

Part III
C11
Consumer and Cultural Influences

Sources of influence on consumer behavior can be described as marketer

dominated or non-marketer dominated and as delivered by mass media or personally Marketer dominated Non-marketer
dominated (1 ) Mass delivered
Adve rtis ing Sa les promot ions Publicity

(2 )
Ne w s Crit ique s/re vi ew s Progra mm e cont ent Ex te rnal endors eme nts Cultural he roes/ heroines Clubs/ organis ations (4 ) Family Friends Neighbours Clas sm ate s Co -w or k er s

Reach High

Reach Low

De livered Personality

(3 ) S ale sp ers ons

Low Special: Opinion leaders Sources: Market mavens Low High

High

Two - wa y Communication

Credibility

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Consumer Behaviour

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Part III
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Consumer and Cultural Influences

When do Groups Exert Influence?


The group influence on an individual's buying behaviour depends on three factors:
Attitude Towards the Group: According to William O. Bearden and Richard Rose, individual's susceptibility to group influence varies widely. The buying behaviour of a consumer is more likely to be influenced by the group if the individual: 1. Views the reference group as a credible source of information about the product or service.

2.
3.

Values the views and reactions of group members with regard to buying decisions.
Accepts the rewards and sanctions allotted out by the group for proper or improper behaviour. Cont.
Copyright 2008, Satish K Bhatra, S H H Kazmi

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Consumer Behaviour

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Excel Books

Part III
C11
Consumer and Cultural Influences

Nature of the Group: James H. Leigh and Terrance G. Gabel note that reference groups are more likely to influence a group member's behaviour if they are: i. Cohesive, that is having similar values and norms. ii. Frequently interacting and thus creating more opportunities to influence members. iii. Distinctive and exclusive, that is, the membership in the group is highly regarded. Continuing with the Harley-Davidson group example, the group is closely knit and for many members biking has become a full-time hobby. Membership is exclusive and distinctive as they refer to each other as "brothers" and outsiders as "citizens. Nature of the Product: The nature of the product also determines the degree of influence a group has on an individual. Groups are more likely to be influential for products, which are: (a) visible such as clothing and (b) exclusive that might speak of status such as a Mercedes.
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Consumer Behaviour

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Excel Books

Part III
C11
Consumer and Cultural Influences

Types of Reference Groups


Reference groups furnish points of comparison by which one can evaluate attitudes and behaviour. An individual can be a member of a reference group such as the family and would be said to be part of a membership group. This same individual may aspire to belong to a cricket club and would be said to be apart of an aspiration group. A disclaimant group is one to which an individual may belong to or join and then reject the group's values. An individual may also regard the membership in a specific group as something undesirable and to be avoided. Such a group is a dissociative group.
Membership Groups

1.
2. 3. 4.
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Primary Informal Groups


Primary Formal Groups Secondary Informal Groups Secondary Formal Groups
Consumer Behaviour (2nd Edition) Satish K Batra / S H H Kazmi
Cont.
Copyright 2008, Satish K Bhatra, S H H Kazmi

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Part III
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Consumer and Cultural Influences
Membership Positive attitude Negative attitude Positive membership group Disclaimant-group Non membership Aspiration group Dissociative group

Types of Reference Groups

Types of membership groups Informal Primary Secondary Positive membership group Disclaimant-group Formal Aspiration group Dissociative group

Types of aspiration groups


Contact No Contact Anticipatory Symbolic
Cont.
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Consumer Behaviour

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Excel Books

Part III
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Consumer and Cultural Influences
Appealing to Increase Position

Aspiration Groups Anticipatory Aspiration Groups: These are groups that an individual anticipates to join at some future time. The individual, generally, has some direct contact with such group(s). For instance, the individual may wish to join a group higher in the organisational hierarchy. The individual's aspiration is more likely to be an outcome of anticipated rewards that go with higher position in an organisation such as power, status, prestige, money and other perks. A good example of a direct appeal to aspiration group norms within the organisation is the ad for Johnnie Walker. The ad appeal focuses on anticipation of ultimately reaching at the top in the business organisation.
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Cont.
Copyright 2008, Satish K Bhatra, S H H Kazmi

Consumer Behaviour

(2nd Edition)

Satish K Batra / S H H Kazmi

Excel Books

Part III
C11
Consumer and Cultural Influences
Famous soccer player (David Bekham) endorses Police Sunglasses

Symbolic Aspiration Groups: The individual admires these groups but is unlikely to join them despite acceptance of the group's beliefs and attitudes. In a study Robert J. Fisher and Linda L. Price found that individuals establish a vicarious connection with such a group by purchasing a product associated to the aspiration group. For example, a tennis fan may buy a Nike sports jacket and shoes because many tennis star wear these. It is important for such an influence that the product is visually obvious. Marketers use certain celebrities to advertise the product and thereby appeal to the symbolic aspirations of consumers
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Copyright 2008, Satish K Bhatra, S H H Kazmi

Consumer Behaviour

(2nd Edition)

Satish K Batra / S H H Kazmi

Excel Books

Part III
C11
Consumer and Cultural Influences

Table presented below shows the nature of informational influence on the

consumer by describing her/his objective as acquiring knowledge, the condition for accepting information as credible, the power source as expertise and the behaviour as accepting influence.
Types of Reference Group Influences Nature of influence Informational Comparative Knowledge Acceptance Self-maintenance Identification and enrichment Objectives Behaviour Perceived source characteristics Credibility Similarity Type of power Expert Referent

Informational influence is likely to be more important when consumers perceive Normative Reward Power Reward or financial, social,Conformity or performance risk in buying a product.
Cont. coercion
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Consumer Behaviour

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Part III
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Consumer and Cultural Influences
Reference Group Influences on Publicly and Privately Consumed Luxuries and Necessities Where Consumed In Private Influence weak Razor Toilet soap Water heater Mattress Influence strong Body massage DVD player Hot bath tub Private swimming-pool In Public Influence weak Clothing Watches Shoes Conveyance

Necessity

Type of Product

Luxury

Influence strong Camcorder Jewelry Health club Custom-made Car

Cont.
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Consumer Behaviour

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Excel Books

Part III
C11
Consumer and Cultural Influences
(b) Symbolic referent The famous cricketer (a) Actual referent is a typical consumer

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What Are the Strategic Goals of This Ad?

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter Twelve Slide 52

This Ad is Placed in Black Media which is Very Important to Many African Americans.

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Chapter Twelve Slide 53

Discussion Questions
Is it ethical for marketers of high-priced goods, an iPod for example, to target tweens? How might they market responsibly?

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Chapter Twelve Slide 54