You are on page 1of 15

JOB ANALYSIS

or

“How to Figure Out What


the Job Actually Entails,
Despite What the 50-Year-
Old Job Description Says”
WHAT IS JOB ANALYSIS?
In this session we’ll cover. . .
 The meaning and role of job analysis in
selection and recruitment
 The legal standards for job analysis
 Methods of job analysis
 Discussion of the job analysis
questionnaire you’ll use in your project
THE MEANING AND ROLE OF
JOB ANALYSIS
 Job analysis is a systematic process for
collecting data about work activities, equipment,
context, and KSAs required of the job
 In selection and recruitment, job analysis
identifies the KSAs necessary for job success
(necessary to develop selection methods) and
provides criteria for successful performance
Job Components
Identifies components of job by
answering 4 questions:
 What does incumbent actually do?
 What are duties, responsibilities, &
performance expectations?
 What KSAs are needed for success?
 What are conditions, location, physical &
social needs, supervision needs, etc. under
which job is performed?
WHAT JOBS SHOULD BE
ANALYZED FIRST?
 Jobs where adverse impact in hiring has
occurred
 Entry-level jobs
 Jobs whose content has changed
 Jobs with incumbents having poor
performance or high turnover
 Jobs with a large number of openings
WHAT ARE THE LEGAL STANDARDS
FOR JOB ANALYSIS?
 Must be for the job  Must include tasks,
where selection duties, & activities
device will be used  KSAs must be listed
 Should be in writing  Competency levels
 Should detail JA for entry-level jobs
procedures used must be specified
 Data collected by  80% of the required
knowledgeable KSAs should be
analyst reflected in tests
 Sample size should
be large &
representative
METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB
ANALYTIC INFORMATION
 Job Analysis Interview
 Job Analysis Questionnaire
 Task Statements and Dimensions
 Competency-based Models
 O*NET
JOB ANALYSIS INTERVIEW
 Used to identify
 Frequently used
critical job tasks
 Interviews with
 Task statements are
incumbents &
then written to show
supervisors
what the worker
 Assumes thorough does, to what/whom,
familiarity with the to produced what
job outcome, using what
 Structured or tools, equipment,
unstructured format processes, etc.
GUIDELINES AND LIMITATIONS TO
JOB ANALYSIS INTERVIEWS
 Heavily dependent on interviewing ability
 Takes a lot of time and may not be cost
efficient if there are a number of jobs to be
studied
 Incumbent may distort information to
reflect a more complex job, so verify with
other incumbents and supervisors
 Do not rely on the interview as the only
source of information
JOB ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE
 Task Inventories are  Can help overcome
usually the most some of the problems
widely used with the interview
 Contains demographic  Can be purchased or
data, listing of job designed
tasks and rating  Usually specific to one
scales, as well as job or job family
working conditions,  Still time-consuming
equipment used, etc. and costly
 Literacy issues
TASK ANALYSIS INVENTORY
 Incumbents can respond to tasks listed or
be asked to generate their own
 They then rate the frequency, time spent,
and other perceptions of each task
 These tasks then allow inferences about
KSAs needed to perform the job
 The rating scales allow inferences about
weighting KSAs & tasks in selection
EXAMPLE OF TASK ITEM &
RATINGS
 Initiates contact with potential applicants
by writing job advertisements
 Percentage of Time Spent: 15%
 Rating of Importance Relative to
Other Tasks: Low
 Rating of Difficulty: Moderate
 Training Required: Good written skills
Competency Model Approach
 Competency is an underlying
characteristic that is required to
successfully perform a job or role
 A Competency Model is a cluster of
these necessary competencies for any
one job
 Competencies are different from KSAs,
in that they can apply across different
jobs and they can relate to
organizational success, not just
individual success
Job Analysis is Required to
Support ADA Compliance
 The Americans With Disabilities Act
requires the identification of essential
functions of a job
 Job Analysis is one legally defensible way
to derive the KSAs required, tasks that are
essential, and outcomes that are desired
AND to specify what might be appropriate
(“reasonable”) accommodation
WHICH APPROACH SHOULD I USE?

 Is it ready to use?  Will it support UGES


 Can it be used for a requirements for test
variety of jobs? validation?
 Can it be compared  Is it useful for
across analysts? developing selection
 Is it user-friendly? measures?
 How large a sample?
 How costly is it, both
in terms of time and
 Will it provide money?
reliable results?