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IR and Power in the context of Peace and War: Global Perspective IR 1, 2 and 3

21 Feb 2012

Bantarto Bandoro President University

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Situation and level in which national power is used ------------------------- Time

1. Peace time 2. War time Level
1. National 2. Global
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Who says about power ?

Ray S. Cline: the study of national power , in the final analysis , is a study of the capacity to wage war Hans J. Morgenthau: as a means to that end Thomas Hobbes: individual man and men aggregated into states seek to maintain or to increase power Clauswitz : everything . . . is very simple, but the simplest thing is difficult. Obama: use national power to keep american save
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Contextuality of national power

National power is contextual in that it can be evaluated only in terms of all the power elements and only in relation to another player or players and the situation in which power is being exercised. A nation may appear powerful because it possesses many military assets, but the assets may be inadequate against those of a potential enemy or inappropriate to the nature of the conflict. The question should always be: power over whom, and with respect to what?
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Multidimensional Interrelationship
Historical perspective linked with military capacity, a natural relationship since war in the international arena is the ultima ratio of power . One element of power alone cannot determine national power Morgenthau : the Fallacy of the Single Factor.
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. Relations and Dynamics

Is National power relative or absolute ?. Simply put, a nation does not have abstract power in and of itself, but only power in relation to another actor or actors in the international arena. In reality the superior power of a nation is derived not only from its own qualities, but from that of other actors compared with its own
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Relations and Dynamics, cont

Is national power dynamic or permanent ? What do you think ? Give us an exmple Is particular power factor or relationship immune to change ? Power, as Hobbes long ago pointed out, is what people believe it is until it is exercised.

Situational / contextual aspect of national power

Why situational ? When the powerfull is powerless ! Evidences ? This aspect of the contextual nature of national power introduces even more complications when the diversity of actors in the international arena is taken into account. In an increasingly multicentric world, nation-states will increasingly deal with transnational actors in the exercise of national power. National power, then, is contextual not only in its application to other states, but to other global actors as well.
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The Elements of National Power

Two determinants: 1. Natural determinants (geography, resources, and population) are concerned with the number of people in a nation and with their physical environmen 2. Social determinants (economic, political, military, psychological, and, more recently, informational) concern the ways in which the people of a nation organize themselves and the manner in which they alter their environment
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The Elements of National Power

Natural Determinants of Power They are : 1. Geography 2. Population 3. Natural Resources Social Determinants of Power: 1. Economic 2. Military 3. Political 4. Psychological 5. Informational.




1.Harmony, 2.Coordination. 3.Cooperation, 4. Conflict 5. War




Types of Interaction: Harmony

Harmony is when actors' interests coincide. Independent pursuit of own interests returns maximum output.



Types of Interaction: Coordination

Actors more interested in choosing the same strategy than in choosing any given strategy. Two possibilities
1. Pure coordination easier 2. Coordination after investment - harder



Types of Interaction: Cooperation

Cooperation is mutual adjustment of policy. Benefits both actors, but not always equally.



Types of Interaction: Conflict

1. Results from mutually incompatible preferences. 2. Not always violent. 3. Example ??



Power in the System

Power is the ability of A to get B to do what A wants B to do. 1. Inherently relational 2. Sources of power
Land Natural Resources 3. PopulationMilitary power

4. Market power 5. Cultural power 6. Social political power

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Defining the System by Power

Great Power state that can project power across the system System defined by number of great powers:
many, two, or one



Three or more Great Powers Example Europe at the beginning of the 20th century

Attempts to balance power make system warprone

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Two great powers Examples
Athens and Sparta in Ancient Greece USA and USSR during Cold War

Relatively stable
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One great power Example the US right now
Milit arit y Expendit ures
Unit ed St at es Russia* China* Unit ed Kingdom Japan Fr ance Ger m any Saudi Ar abia India It aly Sout h Kor ea Aust r alia Tur key * Isr ael* Canada Spain* Br azil Net her lands Taiw an Gr eece* Indonesia*

May encourage other states to align against the superpower

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Class Discussion