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Submitted to: Computer Science Department

Submitted by: Damini garg CR 08/196

1. Previous Technologies 1G, 2G, 3G 2. What is 4G ? 3. How 4G Works Architecture, AdHoc, IP core, OFDM

4. Technologies used
5. Impact of 4G economic, socio-cultural, political 6. Cconclusion 7. References

Previous Technologies

What is 4G?

A wireless access technology and is the successor of 3G. Called "3G and Beyond". Enables seamless roaming between technologies.

All network elements are digital.

Higher bandwidths to provide multimedia services at lower cost (up to 100Mbps). Tight network security. Entirely packet-switched networks.

What is 4G ? (contd.)

Fourth Generation Technology Faster and more reliable 100 Mb/s (802.11g wireless = 54Mb/s, 3G = 2Mb/s) Lower cost than previous generations Multi-standard wireless system Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless (802.11x) Ad Hoc Networking

IPv6 Core
OFDM used instead of CDMA Potentially IEEE standard 802.11n Most information is proprietary

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Allows for transfer of more data than other forms of multiplexing (time, frequency, code, etc)
Simplifies the design of the transmitter & receiver

Allows for use of almost the entire frequency band No gaps to prevent interference needed
Currently used in WiMax(802.16) and Wi-Fi(802.11a/g)

OFDM (contd.) A form of multi-carrier modulation, works by dividing the data stream for transmission at a bandwidth B into N multiple and parallel bit streams Parallel symbols : multiple access, Narrow frequency: Long symbol time: it makes easier for the receiver to pulling each one of the symbols even if the signal degrades somewhat

How OFDM works:

.The frequencies are spaced so that the signals do not interfere with each other (no cross talk) Parallel Data Transmission -Allows for the sending of multiple signals simultaneously from the same antenna (or wire) to one deviceEach transmission has a different stream of bits

Data encoded on multiple high-speed radio frequencies concurrently. greater security efficient use of bandwidth minimize interference with adjacent networks. Wideband OFDM Invented by Wi-LAN Large spacing between carriers

More immune against power fading

Users are multiplexed with orthogonal codes to distinguish users in (multi-carrier) MC-CDMA each user can be allocated several codes

enables high-speed data

increases voice capacity

What is Ultra Wideband?

Radio technology that modulates impulse based waveforms instead of continuous carrier waves
Time-domain behavior Ultrawideband Communication
Impulse Modulation 1 0 1

Frequency-domain behavior


(FCC Min=500Mhz)

10 GHz

Narrowband Communicatio n

Frequency Modulation
2.4 GHz

Ultra Wideband Characteristics

Extremely low transmission energy ( less than 1mW)
Very high bandwidth within short range (200Mbps within 10m) Extremely difficult to intercept Short pulse excitation generates wideband spectra low energy densities Low energy density also minimizes interference to other services Multipath immunity Commonality of signal generation and processing architectures Radar Inherent high precision sub-centimeter ranging Wideband excitation for detection of complex, low RCS targets Geolocation/Positioning Sub-centimeter resolution using pulse leading edge detection passes through building blocks, walls, etc. (LOS not required)

Low Cost Nearly all-digital architecture ideal for microminiaturization into a chipset
Frequency diversity with minimal hardware modifications

Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS)

Local multipoint distribution service (LMDS) -Fixed broadband technology that can provide a wide variety of wireless services High-speed Internet access Real-time multimedia file transfer Remote access to local area networks Interactive video, video-on-demand, video conferencing Telephone service -Can transmit from 51 to 155 Mbps downstream and 1.54 Mbps upstream Over a distance of up to about 5 miles (8 kilometers)

LMDS (cntd.)

Advantages of 4G:
o Support for interactive multimedia, voice, streaming video, Internet, and other broadband services o High speed, high capacity, and low cost per bit o Global access, service portability, and scalable mobile services o Seamless switching, and a variety of Quality of Service driven services

o Better scheduling and call admission control techniques

o Better spectral efficiency

Disadvantages of 4G:
-expensive. -battery uses is more. -hard to implement -need complicated hard ware.

Impact of 4G
More affordable communication services One device can communicate with all vs. many devices communicating with some devices. TV, internet, phone, radio, home environment sensors all reachable through one device the cell phone -Streaming HD video

Applications of 4G :
o 4G car o4G and public safety oSensor in public vehicle oCameras in traffic light oFirst responder route selection

oTraffic control during disasters

With this we can conclude 4G as a : MAGIC

Mobile multimedia connection. Anywhere anytime with anyone. Global mobility support. Integrated wireless solution. Customized personal services.

References :-