ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

SUBMITTED BY: ADITYA MEENA FPT-II

OBJECTIVES:
•Explain the importance of each element of design in relation to fashion. •Apply the principles of design to apparel.

The Design Equation ELEMENTS PRINCIPLES

-COLOR
-SHAPE -LINE -TEXTURE

BALANCE PROPORTION EMPHASIS RHYTHM

The element are components or parts which can be isolated and defined in any visual design or work of art.creates feeling and mood  value-value is the lightness or darkness of a colour. They are: Colour – most exciting and creates mood Line – creates illusions of the body Shape – changes body silhouette Texture . There are five elements of design. All elements work together to create the overall design and beauty of a garment .

COLOUR .

Hue: name of a colour. red or blue Value: lightness or darkness of a hue red.The Element of COLOUR Colour is the most important visual component designers and artists work with. The value of a hue can be changed by adding black (shade) burgundy or white (tint) pink . eg. Colour combinations can express a mood or seem warm or cool.

greens) look like their moving away from you RECEDE and compliment cool skin tones . Intensity: the brightness or dullness of a hue Light. yellows. oranges) look like they’re coming towards you ADVANCE and compliment warm skin tones  Cool colours (blues. violets. dull colours appear smaller  Warm colours (reds. bright colours appear larger Dark.

power.COLOR Communication • Black . serious. nature. strong.dignified.cheerful.earthy.elegant. tailored • • • White – innocent. • sophisticated. youthful.sunny.quiet. warm • Orange .royal. natural Navy . cheerful. vibrant Yellow . quiet dignity. luxury . peaceful.wealth. cool.soft. comfortable. professional • Beige . dramatic • Gray . calm Green – signifies life. friendly Red .aggressive. wise. lively • Violet . feminine • • • Gold . classic. youthful. sad Brown . sad. casual. dignified. passionate. pure • Pink .modest.

gray. beige) with an accent of bright color • Complementary – Opposite hues • Split complementary – 1 hue with hues on each side of its complement . black.COLOR Schemes • Monochromatic – Tints and shades of one hue • Triad – 3 hues equal distance • Analogous – Adjacent hues • Accented neutral – Neutral (white.

Illusions Through COLOR Using Color in Fashion • Extreme contrast makes colors look brighter • Light colored objects appear larger • Dark colored objects recede or appear smaller • Fashion is more attractive without equal areas of light and dark • Color is affected by light and texture .

Colour Wheel .

6 Colour Schemes: Monochromatic Shades & tints of one hue .

Accented Neutral A neutral hue (white. grey. beige. black. denim) accented with any other hue .

Complementary Two opposite colours on the colour wheel .

Triadic 3 colours spaced at equal distance from each other on the colour wheel .

Analogous 2 – 4 colours that are side by side on the colour wheel (creates a blended but distinct look) .

Split Complementary
Uses the hues on either side of it’s complementary colour to create a 3 hued colour scheme.

YO+B+V

B+RO+YO

G+RV+Y RO+G+B

LINE
• A distinct, elongated mark as if drawn by a pencil. Eyes follow lines up, down, side to side or around.

The Element of LINE
• Line is a series of points connected together to form a narrow path. • Line divides areas into shapes and spaces and has various effects on figure • Line can create optical illusions by the following ways:
– – – – movement within garment design placement on the body size of the line direction of line

therefore adding height and making the figure look slimmer. . • Vertical lines can be seen in a center front seam. neckties. classic pump shoes.Straight Lines: Vertical • Vertical lines usually lead the eye up and down the body. tall hats. pleated skirts and of course stripes. depending on the spacing and background colour. vertical buttons. • Vertical lines that are repeated in quantity can add width.

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• Zigzag lines cause the eye to abruptly shift directions and therefore they tend to increase mass or size of the area covered. . • Diagonal lines are the best lines to incorporate when trying to camouflage poorly proportioned parts of the body.Straight Line: Diagonal • Diagonal lines assume the characteristics of the vertical or horizontal lines as the degree of slant approaches each extreme.

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pockets.Curved Lines • Curved lines generally follow the contour of the body and are flattering. hairstyles. cuffs. hats. flowing and gentle. A full circle becomes active and may be easily overdone in a design whereas a smaller curve is graceful. necklines and tight-fitting clothing and knitwear. collars. sleeves. • Curved lines can be found in: yokes. .

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tubular. . • Imagine what the clothes would look like if you were looking at their shadow or tracing just the outer line of the garment.Shape • The term shape refers to the outer silhouette of clothing. They are natural. That's shape! • There are 4 basic garment shapes. bell (or A-line) and full.

• This shape is the most classic and typical shape most people wear .Natural Shape • Follow your body's proportion. Clothes of this shape are close to the body and emphasize your natural waistline.

. and a tailored business suit are examples of tubular shapes. straight leg pants.Tubular Shape • The tubular shape is rectangular with vertical emphasis. The dominant lines go up and down and the natural waistline is not defined. • A flapper dress.

A-line Shape • Combines both vertical and horizontal lines in a silhouette and is flattering to most women. . and capes are examples. flared pants and jackets. • A-line skirts and dresses.

• Gathered skirts and dresses. . and pants with wide legs are examples. but can also hide figure flaws well. full sleeves. • They add weight and size to the figure.Full Shape • The full shapes have more horizontal and curved lines than do the other shapes.

yarns.TEXTURE • Taxtile quality of goods or how material feels • Can be created from fibers. bulky. fuzzy. or heavy textures make figures look larger – Dull or flat textures tend to slenderize . and fabric construction • Illusions – Shiny.

more or less feminine or masculine. • Matching the texture of a fabric to the style of the garment(s) you are creating is a key skill to develop to enable you to create the look you desire. yarn. weaves and finishes of the fabric. looks and moves on the wearer. • Texture determines how fabric feels.Texture • Texture is determined by the type of fibre. . • Texture sets the mood of the garment making clothes feel more or less formal.

chiffon . not tight) • Examples: jersey knits.e. can be very flattering (i.Soft & Clingy • Hug the body • Emphasize any figure irregularities • When draped into soft silhouettes.

mohair. • Examples: wide wale corduroy.Nubby & Bulky • Adds dimension and makes you appear larger • Looks best on slim to average figures of medium to tall height. heavy tweeds. hand-knit sweaters .

nylon. sequins. etc. vinyl.Shiny • Reflect light and give impression of added size • Examples: satin. polished cotton. .

• Examples: corduroy. men and women.Moderately Crisp • Stands away from the body just enough to help conceal body irregularities • Flattering to all figure types. denim .

leathers .Extra Crisp • • • • Creates a stiff outer shell appearance Makes body seem larger Gives a masculine and angular shape to wearer Examples: taffeta. vinyl.

• Does not seem to create significant illusions about size or shape • May lack interest or uniqueness • Examples: flannel. broadcloth.Smooth with a Dull Finish • May make figure look smaller as it absorbs light. wool jersey .

The value scale  The value key •Lightness or darkness of a . •We achive value changes in colour by adding black or white to the colour. •Value is measured in two ways. •Value is the most three dimension of colour.VALUE colour.

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Or •The principles of design are the ways in which design elements may be used. .PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN •The principles of design are how we use the tools(elements) to create looks that are different or unique .

The principles are: Repetition Gradation Rhythm Radiation Harmony Contrast Dominance Proportion Balance Unity .

The element of design: Line Shape Value Colour Texture Are organized acording to •The principle of design: Repetition Gradation Rhythm Radiation Harmony Contrast Dominance Proportion Balance Unity To create Good Design .

colour or texture is used more than once. space. value. •Structural use: pleats. pockets. shape . .Repetition •Repetition occurs when a line . •Decorative use: woven and knitted fabric and often evident in fabric colures. skirt . darts. gathers. yokes and panel lines.

. relationship of the parts of design to each other and to the whole. •Most pleasing when divided unevenly.Proportion • Proportion: the way one part of design relates in size to another part and to the whole design. Or •The spatial. or size. •Garments should bring out the natural proportions of the body to be pleasing.

Rhythm •Rhythm leads the eye from one part of a design to another part .creating movement through repetition of pattern or colour. •. Rhythm carries the eye through a regular pattern of design elements. .

Harmony • Pleasing visual unity of all aspects of a design • All parts of the design look as if they belong • Does not have excess variation that could displease or detract .

•Formal balance Symmetrical Dignified Can look boring •Informal balance Creates balance asymmetrically Elements placed unequally in a way that achieves balance .Balance • balance involves giving equal weight to the spaces on both sides of an imaginary center line.

.Gradation •Gradation occurs when a series of two or more parts identical but for one detail change with each repetition in consecutive incresase or decreasing steps.

contrast in direction-horizontal/ verticle. yokes in all garments have inbuilt contrast.t.Contrast • contrast is the juxtaposition of opening elements e.horizontal and vertical edges . •Example. seams.g. opposite colour on the colour wheel-red /bluegreen/orange e.c contrast in tone or value-light/dark . .

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t. A center of interest with a design message supported by the other features in the design.Dominance •Every design should have a focal point.c .c •Decorative use: trims. fabric colures and textures e. button down the front of a dress e. •Structural use: silhoutte.t.

.Gradation •Gradation occurs when a series of two or more parts identical but for one detail change with each repetition in consecutive incresase or decreasing steps.

such as the spokes in a wheel is known as radiation. •Radiation is limited in use to line shape and space. sunray. folds. Peplums and caps. pleats. flares. gathers. darts. It is evident in drapes. .Radiation •Outward movement in all direction from a central point.

the final step which can only be completed when all the other principles and elements have been dealt with. •Function structure and decoration follow the same purpose in a united design.Unity •It is considered last process because it is the culmination of the design process. . •Garment and accessories and the wearer work separately and together to complete a successful outfit.

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The elements are arranged according to the principles of design to create a garment which is suitable for its intended use. The success of garment relies on the combination of all of parts of design and all they are of equal importance.Conclusion •The elements of design are the tools a designer works with. •Although each element and principle has been dealt with separately. they all work together to create the final effect. .

hornberger. •Clothing technology(fiber to . •The fashion design manualpamela stecker •Inside Fashion Design – Sharon Lee Tate •Visual design in Dress – Marian l.Reference fashion) –Eberle.

THANK YOU!!! .

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